Computer Architecture

Computer Architecture - Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)...

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DAP Spr.‘98 © UCB 7 Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) instruction set software hardware
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DAP Spr.‘98 © UCB 8 Interface Design A good interface: Lasts through many implementations (portability, compatability) Is used in many differeny ways (generality) Provides convenient functionality to higher levels Permits an efficient implementation at lower levels Interface imp 1 imp 2 imp 3 use use use time
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DAP Spr.‘98 © UCB 9 Evolution of Instruction Sets Single Accumulator (EDSAC 1950) Accumulator + Index Registers (Manchester Mark I, IBM 700 series 1953) Separation of Programming Model from Implementation High-level Language Based Concept of a Family (B5000 1963) (IBM 360 1964) General Purpose Register Machines Complex Instruction Sets Load/Store Architecture RISC (Vax, Intel 432 1977-80) (CDC 6600, Cray 1 1963-76) (Mips,Sparc,HP-PA,IBM RS6000,PowerPC . . .1987) LIW/”EPIC”? (IA-64. . .1999)
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DAP Spr.‘98 © UCB 10 Evolution of Instruction Sets Major advances in computer architecture are typically associated with landmark instruction set designs Ex: Stack vs GPR (System 360) Design decisions must take into account: technology machine organization programming langauges compiler technology operating systems And they in turn influence these
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DAP Spr.‘98 © UCB 11 A "Typical" RISC 32-bit fixed format instruction (3 formats) 32 32-bit GPR (R0 contains zero, DP take pair) 3-address, reg-reg arithmetic instruction Single address mode for load/store: base + displacement no indirection Simple branch conditions Delayed branch see: SPARC, MIPS, HP PA-Risc, DEC Alpha, IBM PowerPC, CDC 6600, CDC 7600, Cray-1, Cray-2, Cray-3
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DAP Spr.‘98 © UCB 12 Example: MIPS ( DLX) Op 31 26 0 15 16 20 21 25 Rs1 Rd immediate Op 31 26 0 25 Op 31 26 0 15 16 20 21 25 Rs1 Rs2 target Rd Opx Register-Register 5 6 10 11 Register-Immediate Op 31 26 0 15 16 20 21 25 Rs1 Rs2/Opx immediate Branch Jump / Call
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DAP Spr.‘98 © UCB 13 Pipelining: Its Natural! Laundry Example Ann, Brian, Cathy, Dave each have one load of clothes to wash, dry, and fold Washer takes 30 minutes Dryer takes 40 minutes “Folder” takes 20 minutes A B C D
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© UCB 14 Sequential Laundry Sequential laundry takes 6 hours for 4 loads If they learned pipelining, how long would laundry take? A
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Computer Architecture - Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)...

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