11 - Multiprocessors

11 Multiprocessors - EEF011 Computer Architecture Chapter 6 Multiprocessors and Thread-Level Parallelism December 2004 Chapter 6 Multiprocessors

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Chapter 6 Multiprocessors and Thread-Level Parallelism 吳俊興 高雄大學資訊工程學系 December 2004 EEF011 Computer Architecture 計算機結構
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2 Chapter 6. Multiprocessors and Thread-Level Parallelism 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Characteristics of Application Domains 6.3 Symmetric Shared-Memory Architectures 6.4 Performance of Symmetric Shared-Memory Multiprocessors 6.5 Distributed Shared-Memory Architectures 6.6 Performance of Distributed Shared-Memory Multiprocessors 6.7 Synchronization 6.8 Models of Memory Consistency: An Introduction 6.9 Multithreading: Exploiting Thread-Level Parallelism within a Processor
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3 6.1 Introduction •Increasing demands of parallel processors –Microprocessors are likely to remain the dominant uniprocessor technology • Connecting multiple microprocessors together is likely to be more cost-effective than designing a custom parallel processor –It’s unclear whether architectural innovation can be sustained indefinitely • Multiprocessors are another way to improve parallelism –Server and embedded applications exhibit natural parallelism to be exploited beyond desktop applications (ILP) •Challenges to architecture research and development –Death of advances in uniprocessor architecture? –More multiprocessor architectures failing than succeeding • more design spaces and tradeoffs
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4 Taxonomy of Parallel Architectures Flynn Categories • SISD (Single Instruction Single Data) – Uniprocessors • MISD (Multiple Instruction Single Data) – ???; multiple processors on a single data stream • SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) – same instruction executed by multiple processors using different data streams • Each processor has its data memory (hence multiple data) • There’s a single instruction memory and control processor – Simple programming model, Low overhead, Flexibility – (Phrase reused by Intel marketing for media instructions ~ vector) – Examples: vector architectures, Illiac-IV, CM-2 • MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) – Each processor fetches its own instructions and operates on its own data – MIMD current winner: Concentrate on major design emphasis <= 128 processors • Use off-the-shelf microprocessors: cost-performance advantages • Flexible: high performance for one application, running many tasks simultaneously – Examples: Sun Enterprise 5000, Cray T3D, SGI Origin
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5 MIMD Class 1: Centralized shared-memory multiprocessor share a single centralized memory, interconnect processors and memory by a bus • also known as “uniform memory access” (UMA) or “symmetric (shared-memory) multiprocessor” (SMP) – A symmetric relationship to all processors – A uniform memory access time from any processor • scalability problem: less attractive for large-scale processors
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6 MIMD Class 2: Distributed-memory multiprocessor memory modules associated with CPUs • Advantages: – cost-effective way to scale memory bandwidth – lower memory latency for local memory access
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2012 for the course CSCI 593 taught by Professor Hamnes during the Spring '11 term at St. Cloud.

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11 Multiprocessors - EEF011 Computer Architecture Chapter 6 Multiprocessors and Thread-Level Parallelism December 2004 Chapter 6 Multiprocessors

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