November 2, 2011
Chapter 7 – Questions for Review
1. Define motivation. What are the key elements of motivation?
Motivation is not just working hard it is the process that account for an individual's intensity,
persistence of effort, and direction to achieve particular goal. The key elements of motivation
are: direction, intensity, and persistence.
2. What are the early theories of motivation? How well have they been supported by
Four specific motivation theories were formulated during the 1950's: Hierarchy of needs
theory, theory X and theory Y, Two-factor theory, and McClelland's Theory of needs.
Hierarchy of needs theory by Abraham Maslow is maybe the best-know theory of motivation.
Maslow hypothesized that every human being has five basic needs: 1.Physiological (includes
hunger, thirst, sex, shelter and other physiological needs), 2.Safety (includes security and
protection from possible physical and emotional harm), 3. Social (includes affection,
belongings, acceptance, and friendship), 4. Esteem (includes self-respect, autonomy, and
achievement), 5. Self-actualization (achieving our potential and self fulfillment). The idea is
that when the first needs from the bottom of the hierarchy have been satisfied the next need in
the hierarchy becomes dominant. Maslow's theory got a lot of recognition, but the research
didn't show any evidence of validity.
Theory X and theory Y by Douglas McGregor proposed that there are two distinct views of
human beings: negative theory labeled as theory X, and one positive theory labeled as theory
Y. Theory X is the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, and dislike
responsibility. Theory Y is the assumption that employees like work, are creative, and seek
responsibility. McGregor hypothesized that managers' view of the employees are based on a