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Chapter 7 - QFR - Evgeniy Bukatin Pr Adou-Dy BUS 308...

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Evgeniy Bukatin Pr. Adou-Dy BUS 308 November 2, 2011 Chapter 7 – Questions for Review 1. Define motivation. What are the key elements of motivation? Motivation is not just working hard it is the process that account for an individual's intensity, persistence of effort, and direction to achieve particular goal. The key elements of motivation are: direction, intensity, and persistence. 2. What are the early theories of motivation? How well have they been supported by research? Four specific motivation theories were formulated during the 1950's: Hierarchy of needs theory, theory X and theory Y, Two-factor theory, and McClelland's Theory of needs. Hierarchy of needs theory by Abraham Maslow is maybe the best-know theory of motivation. Maslow hypothesized that every human being has five basic needs: 1.Physiological (includes hunger, thirst, sex, shelter and other physiological needs), 2.Safety (includes security and protection from possible physical and emotional harm), 3. Social (includes affection, belongings, acceptance, and friendship), 4. Esteem (includes self-respect, autonomy, and achievement), 5. Self-actualization (achieving our potential and self fulfillment). The idea is that when the first needs from the bottom of the hierarchy have been satisfied the next need in the hierarchy becomes dominant. Maslow's theory got a lot of recognition, but the research didn't show any evidence of validity. Theory X and theory Y by Douglas McGregor proposed that there are two distinct views of human beings: negative theory labeled as theory X, and one positive theory labeled as theory Y. Theory X is the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, and dislike responsibility. Theory Y is the assumption that employees like work, are creative, and seek responsibility. McGregor hypothesized that managers' view of the employees are based on a
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certain grouping of assumptions, and managers tend to mold their behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. According to research there is no evidence to confirm that either set X or Y set of assumptions is valid. Two-factor theory by psychologist Frederick Herzberg proposed that individual's relationship to work is basic and that attitude toward work can determine success or failure. According to the book the theory relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Two-factor theory has been criticized because there has not been well supported in the literature and it has many detractors. According to the book the procedure
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