25Ch42circulatory2005a - Chapter 42. Circulation in Animals...

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2005-2006 AP Biology Chapter 42. Circulation in Animals
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2005-2006 AP Biology
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2005-2006 AP Biology What are the issues Animal cells exchange material across the cell membrane nutrients fuels for energy oxygen waste (urea, CO 2 ) If you are a 1-cell organism that’s easy! If you are many-celled that’s harder
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2005-2006 AP Biology What are the issues? Diffusion is not adequate for moving material across more than 1 cell barrier O 2 O 2 O 2 CHO CHO CHO aa aa aa CH CH CH CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 O 2 aa aa O 2
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2005-2006 AP Biology Simple diffusion Body cavity 2-cell layers think all cells within easy reach of fluid use gastrovascular cavity for exchange Cnidarians Hydra
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2005-2006 What are the solutions? Circulatory system solves this problem carries fluids & dissolved material throughout body cells are never far from body fluid only a few cells away from blood overcoming the limitations of diffusion
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2005-2006 AP Biology In circulation… What needs to be transported nutritive nutrients fuels from digestive system respiratory O 2 & CO 2 from & to gas exchange systems: lungs, gills excretory waste products from cells water, salts, nitrogenous wastes (urea) protection blood clotting immune defenses white blood cells & others patrolling body regulation hormones
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2005-2006 AP Biology Circulatory systems All animals have: circulatory fluid = blood tubes = blood vessels muscular pump = heart open closed
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2005-2006 AP Biology Open circulatory system Taxonomy invertebrates insects, arthropods, mollusks Structure no distinction between blood & extracellular (interstitial) fluid hemolymph
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2005-2006 AP Biology Closed circulatory system Taxonomy invertebrates earthworms, squid, octopuses vertebrates Structure blood confined to vessels & separate from interstitial fluid 1 or more hearts large vessels to smaller vessels material diffuses between vessels & interstitial fluid
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2005-2006 AP Biology Vertebrate circulatory system Closed system number of heart chambers differs 4 chamber heart is double pump = separates oxygen-rich & oxygen-poor blood What’s the adaptive value of a 4 chamber heart?
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2005-2006 AP Biology Evolution of vertebrate circulatory system fish amphibian reptiles birds & mammals A A V V V V V A A A A A V 2 chamber 3 chamber 3 chamber 4 chamber heart structure & increasing body size
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2005-2006 AP Biology Driving evolution of CV systems Metabolic rate endothermy = higher metabolic rate greater need for energy, fuels, O 2 , waste removal more complex circulatory system more powerful hearts
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2005-2006 AP Biology Evolution of 4 chambered heart Double circulation increase pressure to systemic
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25Ch42circulatory2005a - Chapter 42. Circulation in Animals...

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