49 - Amniotic Fluid Embolism Amniotic Fluid Embolism (AFE)...

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Unformatted text preview: Amniotic Fluid Embolism Amniotic Fluid Embolism (AFE) 羊羊羊羊 Definition of AFE Definition of AFE AFE is a rare obstetric emergency in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enter the maternal circulation, causing cardiorespiratory collapse. epidemiology epidemiology The incidence of clinically detectable AFE is low estimated to be 1 in 20,000 to 80,000 live births. Maternal mortality approaches 80%. 5%­ 10% of maternal mortality in the United States is due to AFE. Of patients with AFE, 50% die within the first hour of onset of symptoms. Of survivors of the initial cardiorespiratory phase, 50% develop a coagulopathy. Neonatal survival is 70%. Current data suggest that the process is more similar to anaphylaxis than to embolism term anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy has been suggested Major causes and factors Major causes and factors occurs in obstetric terms or during labor multiparous woman with a large baby a short tumultuous labor use of uterine stimulants occurred during abortion amnioinfusion Amniocentesis caesarian section placenta accreta ruptured uterus pathology pathology Amniotic fluid and fetal cells enter the maternal circulation, possibly triggering an anaphylactic reaction to fetal antigens. (1) Clinical symptoms result from mast cell degranulation with the release of histamine and tryptase, (2) Clinical symptoms result from activation of the complement pathway. . Progression usually occurs in 2 phases. phase I: pulmonary artery vasospasm with pulmonary hypertension and elevated right ventricular pressure cause hypoxia. Hypoxia causes myocardial capillary damage and pulmonary capillary damage, left heart failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Women who survive these events may enter phase II. This is a hemorrhagic phase characterized by massive hemorrhage with uterine atony and DIC however, fatal consumptive coagulopathy may be the initial presentation. Presentation Presentation The clinical presentation of AFE is generally dramatic in the late stages , acutely dyspnea and hypotension with rapid progression to cardiopulmonary arrest In 40% of cases, followed by some degree of consumptive coagulopathy, Hypotension: Blood pressure may drop significantly with loss of diastolic measurement. Dyspnea: Labored breathing and tachypnea may occur. Seizure: The patient may experience tonic­clonic seizures. Cough: This is usually a manifestation of dyspnea. Cyanosis: As hypoxia/hypoxemia progresses, circumoral and peripheral cyanosis and changes in mucous membranes may manifest. Pulmonary edema: identified on chest radiograph. Cardiac arrest Uterine atony: Fetal bradycardia: In response to the hypoxic Uterine atony usually results in excessive bleeding after delivery. Differentials Differentials Anaphylaxis Aortic Dissection( 羊羊羊羊 羊羊羊羊 Cholesterol Embolism Myocardial Infarction Pulmonary Embolism Septic Shock Lab Studies Lab Studies . Arterial blood gas (ABG) levels: Expect changes consistent with ypoxia/hypoxemia Decreased pH levels Decreased PO2 levels Increased PCO2 levels Base excess increased Hemoglobin and hematocrit /Thrombocytopenia is rare/ platelets / Prothrombin time (PT) Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) fibrinogen (Fg) Blood type and screen Chest radiograph A 12­lead ECG Treatment Treatment Administer oxygen to maintain normal saturation. Initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if the patient arrests. Treat hypotension with crystalloid and blood products. Consider pulmonary artery catheterization in patients who are hemodynamically unstable. Treat coagulopathy with fresh frozen plasma(FFP) for a prolonged aPTT, cryoprecipitate for a fibrinogen level less than 100 mg/dL, and transfuse platelets for platelet counts less than 20,000/mL. Continuously monitor the fetus. Delivery quickly (forceps) Surgical Care: Perform emergent cesarean delivery in arrested mothers who are unresponsive to resuscitation. hemorrhage was controlled with bilateral uterine artery embolization. Uterine Rupture Uterine Rupture is one of the most feared complications of pregnancy the fetus, placenta, and a lot of blood extruding into the mother's abdomen from a weak spot in the uterine wall or uterus scar epidemiology epidemiology the risk of uterine rupture was 1 per 625 women who chose repeat cesarean without labor, 1 per 192 women who went into labor and tried for VBAC, 1 per 129 for those who had their labor induced without prostaglandins (usually with Pitocin) 1 per 41 when prostaglandin medications were used for induction When the uterus did rupture, 1 in 18 babies died, and 1 in 23 of the women required a hysterectomy. Causes and factors Causes and factors previous surgery on the uterus Prior classical cesareans, where the incision is near the top of the uterus prior removal of fibroid tumors any other uterine surgery that went through the full depth of the muscular portion of the uterus, multiple (three or more) prior low transverse cesareans having had more than five full­term pregnancies having an overdistended uterus (as with twins or other multiples), abnormal positions of the baby such as transverse lie the use of Pitocin and other labor­inducing medications like prostaglandins presentation presentation Most uterine ruptures occur without symptoms and do not cause problems for the mother or fetus. This mild type is only noticed when surgery is required for other reasons. In the most severe form , the laceration is large or cuts across the uterine blood vessels the mother may hemorrhage and require a blood transfusion the uterus may not be repairable and must be surgically removed (hysterectomy) Many women will be advised not to get pregnant again, due to the risk of repeated rupture the baby may not survive the mother's life cannot be saved Signs of uterine rupture Signs of uterine rupture severe, localized pain abnormalities of the fetal heart rate vaginal bleeding the vaginal examination may show that the baby is not as low in the birth canal as he had been earlier. Preventing and Treatment Preventing and Treatment Some uterine ruptures occur before labor and are considered unpreventable. Sudden severe abdominal pain in later pregnancy should be reported Women with risk factors ( prior classical cesareans, deep fibroid excisions, and other major uterine surgeries )should not attempt labor should be scheduled for cesarean usually between 36 and 39 weeks' gestation. If trying for vaginal birth after low transverse cesarean(VBAC), fetal monitoring is important When uterine rupture is diagnosed during labor, an emergency cesarean is performed. Usually the baby's life can be saved. ...
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