Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems Test w. solutions

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BIOLOGY TOPICAL: Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems Test 1 Time: 23 Minutes* Number of Questions: 18 * The timing restrictions for the science topical tests are optional. If you are using this test for the sole purpose of content reinforcement, you may want to disregard the time limit.
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MCAT 2 as developed by DIRECTIONS: Most of the questions in the following test are organized into groups, with a descriptive passage preceding each group of questions. Study the passage, then select the single best answer to each question in the group. Some of the questions are not based on a descriptive passage; you must also select the best answer to these questions. If you are unsure of the best answer, eliminate the choices that you know are incorrect, then select an answer from the choices that remain. Indicate your selection by blackening the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. A periodic table is provided below for your use with the questions. PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 1 H 1.0 2 He 4.0 3 Li 6.9 4 Be 9.0 5 B 10.8 6 C 12.0 7 N 14.0 8 O 16.0 9 F 19.0 10 Ne 20.2 11 Na 23.0 12 Mg 24.3 13 Al 27.0 14 Si 28.1 15 P 31.0 16 S 32.1 17 Cl 35.5 18 Ar 39.9 19 K 39.1 20 Ca 40.1 21 Sc 45.0 22 Ti 47.9 23 V 50.9 24 Cr 52.0 25 Mn 54.9 26 Fe 55.8 27 Co 58.9 28 Ni 58.7 29 Cu 63.5 30 Zn 65.4 31 Ga 69.7 32 Ge 72.6 33 As 74.9 34 Se 79.0 35 Br 79.9 36 Kr 83.8 37 Rb 85.5 38 Sr 87.6 39 Y 88.9 40 Zr 91.2 41 Nb 92.9 42 Mo 95.9 43 Tc (98) 44 Ru 101.1 45 Rh 102.9 46 Pd 106.4 47 Ag 107.9 48 Cd 112.4 49 In 114.8 50 Sn 118.7 51 Sb 121.8 52 Te 127.6 53 I 126.9 54 Xe 131.3 55 Cs 132.9 56 Ba 137.3 57 La * 138.9 72 Hf 178.5 73 Ta 180.9 74 W 183.9 75 Re 186.2 76 Os 190.2 77 Ir 192.2 78 Pt 195.1 79 Au 197.0 80 Hg 200.6 81 Tl 204.4 82 Pb 207.2 83 Bi 209.0 84 Po (209) 85 At (210) 86 Rn (222) 87 Fr (223) 88 Ra 226.0 89 Ac † 227.0 104 Rf (261) 105 Ha (262) 106 Unh (263) 107 Uns (262) 108 Uno (265) 109 Une (267) * 58 Ce 140.1 59 Pr 140.9 60 Nd 144.2 61 Pm (145) 62 Sm 150.4 63 Eu 152.0 64 Gd 157.3 65 Tb 158.9 66 Dy 162.5 67 Ho 164.9 68 Er 167.3 69 Tm 168.9 70 Yb 173.0 71 Lu 175.0 90 Th 232.0 91 Pa (231) 92 U 238.0 93 Np (237) 94 Pu (244) 95 Am (243) 96 Cm (247) 97 Bk (247) 98 Cf (251) 99 Es (252) 100 Fm (257) 101 Md (258) 102 No (259) 103 Lr (260) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
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Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems Test 1 KAPLAN 3 Passage I (Questions 1–6) While the coagulation factors necessary to initiate clotting are always present in the blood, the formation of a clot in the intact vascular system is prevented by three properties of the vascular walls. First, the endothelial lining is smooth enough to prevent activation of the clotting system, which is sensitive to vascular damage. Second, the inner surface of the endothelium is covered by glycocalyx, a mucopolysaccharide that repels the clotting factors and platelets in the blood. Third, an endothelial surface protein known as thrombomodulin binds thrombin, the enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin in the final stage of clotting. The binding of thrombin to thrombomodulin reduces the amount of thrombin that can participate in clotting. Also, the thrombomodulin- thrombin complex activates protein C, a plasma protein that hinders clot formation by acting as an anticoagulant. If the endothelial surface of a vessel has been roughened by arteriosclerosis or infection, and the glycocalyx-thrombomodulin layer has been lost, the first step of the intrinsic blood clotting pathway (Figure 1) will be triggered. A protein known as Factor XII changes
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