Unformatted text preview: Q1-15
Section 3.4, pp. 199–201 Solutions to Odd Number Problems
1. a) cause-and-effect relationship; alcohol consumption impairs driving ability.
b) common-cause factor; achievement in physics and calculus requires similar skills.
c) reverse cause-and-effect relationship; better job performance leads to increases
d) accidental relationship; no causal relationship between the variables
e) presumed relationship: seems logical that a student who has obtained a number
of scholarships would be attractive as an employee, but there are many other
qualities that employers seek
f) cause-and-effect relationship; coffee consumption keeps people awake.
g) reverse cause-and-effect relationship; higher number of medals won at Olympic
games encourages investors to fund athletic programs.
3. Traffic accidents cause traffic congestion.
5. The overall increase in computer use is likely to have caused parallel increases in
the fortunes of the companies.
7. a) Since the two companies are carrying on different kinds of businesses, an
accidental relationship is likely.
b) Shifting investment capital from one subsidiary to the other will cause one
company to decline and the other to grow, resulting in a cause-and-effect
9. In a double-blind study, neither the participants in a trial nor the investigators are
aware of which intervention the participants are given. The advantages are:
• blinding the participants may prevent performance bias.
• blinding the investigators may prevent detection bias.
11. Solutions for the Achievement Checks are in the Teacher Resource.
13. Hawthorne effect: an increase in worker productivity produced by the
psychological stimulus of being singled out and made to feel important.
Placebo effect: the measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health not
attributable to treatment.
15. Answers may vary.
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- Spring '10
- Calculus, Causality, cause-and-effect relationship, OlympicGames