PD 5500.pdf - PUBLISHED DOCUMENT Specification for Unfired...

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Unformatted text preview: PUBLISHED DOCUMENT Specification for Unfired fusion welded pressure vessels ICS 23.020.30          PD 5500:2003 Incorporating Amendment No. 1 and Corrigendum No. 1 PD 5500:2003 Committees responsible for this Published Document The preparation of this Published Document was entrusted to Technical Committee PVE/1, Pressure vessels, upon which the following bodies were represented: Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Industry Board (ACRIB) British Chemical Engineering Contractors’ Association British Compressed Gases Association British Refrigeration Association British Valve and Actuator Manufacturers’ Association Department of Trade and Industry (Standards and Technical Regulations Directorate) Electricity Association Energy Industries Council Engineering Equipment and Materials Users’ Association Health and Safety Executive LP Gas Association Lloyd's Register of Shipping Power Generation Contractors Association [PGCA (BEAMA Ltd.)] Process Plant Association Safety Assessment Federation Ltd. Society of British Gas Industries The Welding Institute The following bodies were also represented in the drafting of the document, through subcommittees and panels: Association of Consulting Engineers British Cryo Engineering Society University of Liverpool UK Steel Association University of Strathclyde Welding Manufacturers' Association (BEAMA Ltd.) This Published Document was published under the authority of the Standards Policy and Strategy Committee on 15 January 2003 © BSI 1 March 2004 First published as BS 5500 March 1976 Second edition January 1982 Third edition January 1985 Fourth edition January 1988 Fifth edition January 1991 Sixth edition January 1994 Seventh edition January 1997 First published as PD 5500 January 2000 Second edition January 2003 The following BSI references relate to the work on this specification: Committee reference PVE/1 ISBN 0 580 41126 5 Amendments issued since publication Amd. No. Issue Date Effective Date Amendment designation Comments 14534 September 2003 January 2004 Amendment 1, tagged !" See Foreword March 2004 Corrigendum 1 tagged ab See Foreword 14900 March 2004 Corrigendum No. 1 PD 5500:2003 Contents Committees responsible Foreword Summary of amended pages © BSI 1 March 2004 Page Inside front cover xvii xix Section 1. General 1.1 Scope 1.2 Interpretation 1.3 Definitions 1.4 Responsibilities 1.4.1 Responsibilities of the purchaser 1.4.2 Responsibilities of the manufacturer 1.4.3 Responsibilities of the Inspecting Authority 1.4.4 Certificate of Conformance 1.5 Information and requirements to be agreed and to be documented 1.5.1 Information to be supplied by the purchaser 1.5.2 Information to be supplied by the manufacturer 1.6 Thicknesses 1/1 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/4 1/8 1/8 1/11 1/11 1/11 1/12 Section 2. Materials 2.1 Selection of materials 2.1.1 General 2.1.2 Materials for pressure parts 2.1.3 Materials for non-pressure parts 2.2 Materials for low temperature applications 2.3 Nominal design strength 2.3.1 General 2.3.2 Notation 2.3.3 Time-independent design strength 2.3.4 Time-dependent design strength 2/1 2/1 2/1 2/14 2/15 2/17 2/17 2/17 2/18 2/20 Section 3. Design 3.1 General 3.2 Application 3.2.1 Consideration of loads 3.2.2 Design criteria 3.2.3 Design pressure 3.2.4 Maximum design temperature 3.2.5 Minimum design temperature 3.2.6 Thermal loads 3.2.7 Wind and earthquake loads 3.3 Corrosion, erosion and protection 3.3.1 General 3.3.2 Additional thickness to allow for corrosion 3.3.3 Linings and coatings 3.3.4 Wear plates 3.4 Construction categories and design stresses 3.4.1 Construction categories 3.4.2 Design stresses 3/1 3/2 3/2 3/3 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/5 3/5 3/5 3/5 3/5 3/6 3/6 3/6 i PD 5500:2003 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.5.6 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.6.5 3.6.6 3.6.7 3.6.8 3.7 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 3.8.4 3.8.5 3.8.6 3.8.7 3.8.8 3.9 3.9.1 3.9.2 3.9.3 3.9.4 3.9.5 3.9.6 3.10 3.10.1 3.10.2 3.10.3 3.10.4 3.11 3.11.1 3.11.2 3.11.3 3.11.4 3.12 ii Vessels under internal pressure Cylindrical and spherical shells Domed ends Cones and conical ends Openings and nozzle connections Flat ends and flat plates Spherically domed and bolted ends of the form shown in Figure 3.5-39 Vessels under external pressure General Cylindrical shells Conical shells Spherical shells Hemispherical ends Torispherical ends Ellipsoidal ends Procedure by which the departure from the mean circle may be obtained (see 3.6.2) Supports, attachments and internal structures General Supports Bolted flanged connections General Notation Narrow-faced gasketted flanges Full-faced flanges with soft ring type gaskets [see suggested working form (13)] Ungasketted seal welded flanges Reverse narrow-face flanges Reverse full-face flanges [see suggested working forms (14) and (15)] Full-faced flanges with metal to metal contact [see suggested working form (16)] Flat heat exchanger tubesheets Notation Characteristics of perforated plates Tubesheets of exchangers with floating heads or U-tubes Tubesheets of fixed tubesheet exchangers Allowable shell and tube longitudinal stresses Allowable tube joint end load Design of welds General Welded joints for principal seams Welded joints for other than principal seams Welded joints in time dependent applications Vessels with external jackets or limpet coils General Jacketted cylindrical shells Welded jacket connections Cylindrical shells with limpet coils Manholes, inspection openings and quick release openings Page 3/8 3/8 3/10 3/14 3/21 3/67 3/80 3/86 3/86 3/89 3/93 3/96 3/97 3/97 3/97 3/97 3/118 3/118 3/118 3/120 3/120 3/126 3/128 3/135 3/136 3/136 3/136 3/138 3/182 3/182 3/184 3/185 3/194 3/200 3/201 3/206 3/206 3/207 3/207 3/207 3/209 3/209 3/209 3/210 3/212 3/214 © BSI 1 March 2004 PD 5500:2003 3.13 3.13.1 3.13.2 3.13.3 © BSI 1 March 2004 Protective devices for excessive pressure or vacuum Application Capacity of relief device(s) Pressure setting of pressure relieving devices Page 3/214 3/214 3/215 3/215 Section 4. Manufacture and workmanship 4.1 General aspects of construction 4.1.1 General 4.1.2 Material identification 4.1.3 Order of completion of weld seams 4.1.4 Junction of more than two weld seams 4.1.5 Localized thinning 4.1.6 Rectification of departures from tolerance 4.2 Cutting, forming and tolerances 4.2.1 Cutting of material 4.2.2 Forming of shell sections and plates 4.2.3 Assembly tolerances 4.2.4 Tolerances for vessels subject to internal pressure 4.2.5 Tolerances for vessels subject to external pressure 4.2.6 Structural tolerances 4.3 Welded joints 4.3.1 General 4.3.2 Welding consumables 4.3.3 Preparation of plate edges and openings 4.3.4 Assembly for welding 4.3.5 Attachments and the removal of temporary attachments 4.3.6 Butt joints 4.3.7 Welding: general requirements 4.4 Heat treatment 4.4.1 Preheat requirements 4.4.2 Normalizing: ferritic steels 4.4.3 Post-weld heat treatment 4.4.4 Methods of heat treatment 4.4.5 Post-weld heat treatment procedure 4.5 Surface finish 4/1 4/1 4/1 4/1 4/1 4/2 4/2 4/2 4/2 4/3 4/5 4/6 4/8 4/8 4/9 4/9 4/10 4/10 4/10 4/10 4/11 4/12 4/12 4/12 4/12 4/13 4/14 4/14 4/15 Section 5. Inspection and testing 5.1 General 5.2 Approval testing of fusion welding procedures 5.3 Welder and operator approval 5.4 Production control test plates 5.4.1 Vessels in materials other than 9 % Ni steel 5.4.2 9 % Ni steel vessels 5.5 Destructive testing 5.6 Non-destructive testing 5.6.1 General 5.6.2 Parent materials 5.6.3 Components prepared for welding 5.6.4 Non-destructive testing of welded joints 5.6.5 Choice of non-destructive test methods for welds 5.6.6 Non-destructive testing techniques for welds 5/1 5/3 5/5 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/7 5/7 5/7 5/10 5/10 iii PD 5500:2003 Page 5.7 Acceptance criteria for weld defects revealed by visual examination and non-destructive testing 5.7.1 General 5.7.2 Assessment of defects 5.7.3 Repair of welds 5.8 Pressure tests 5.8.1 General 5.8.2 Basic requirements 5.8.3 Hydraulic testing 5.8.4 Pneumatic tests (see also 5.8.7 and 5.8.8) 5.8.5 “Standard” test pressure 5.8.6 Proof hydraulic test 5.8.7 Combined hydraulic/pneumatic tests 5.8.8 Leak testing 5.8.9 Vessel nameplate 5.8.10 Final inspection 5.9 Inspection requirements for cast components 5.9.1 Examination 5.9.2 Defects 5.9.3 Identification and marking Annex A Requirements for design where loadings and components are not covered by Section 3 Annex B Requirements for cylindrical, spherical and conical shells under combined loadings, including wind and earthquakes Annex C Assessment of vessels subject to fatigue Annex D Requirements for vessels designed to operate below 0 °C Annex E Recommendations for welded connections of pressure vessels Annex G Recommendations for the design of local loads, thermal gradients, etc. Annex H Recommendations for post-weld heat treatment of dissimilar ferritic steel joints Annex J Recommendations for pressure relief protective devices Annex K Requirements for design stresses for British Standard materials Annex L Guidance on structural tolerances Annex M Requirements for establishing the safe external working pressure for cylindrical sections outside the circularity limits specified in 3.6 Annex N Requirements for vessel design and the provision of information concerning UK statutory requirements for the demonstration of the continued integrity of pressure vessels throughout their service life Annex Q Recommendations for preparation and testing of production control test plates Annex R Guidance on additional information for flat ends and flat plates Annex S Guidance on optional documentation for supply with vessel Annex T Recommendations for arc welded tube to tubeplate joints Annex U Guidance on the use of fracture mechanics analyses Annex V Requirements for testing and inspection of serially produced pressure vessels Annex W Worked examples Annex Z Guidance on the application of PD 5500 to pressure vessels falling within the scope of the European Pressure Equipment Directive iv 5/12 5/12 5/12 5/14 5/22 5/22 5/22 5/23 5/23 5/24 5/26 5/27 5/27 5/28 5/28 5/29 5/29 5/29 5/29 A/1 B/1 C/1 D/1 E/1 G/1 H/1 J/1 K/1 L/1 M/1 N/1 Q/1 R/1 S/1 T/1 U/1 V/1 W/1 Z/1 © BSI 1 March 2004 PD 5500:2003 Page Aluminium supplement Requirements for aluminium and aluminium alloys in the design and construction of unfired fusion welded pressure vessels Copper supplement Requirements for copper and copper alloys in the design and construction of unfired fusion welded or brazed pressure vessels Nickel supplement Requirements for nickel and nickel alloys in the design and construction of unfired fusion welded pressure vessels Index List of references Figure 1.6-1 — Relationship of thickness definitions Figure 3.5-1 — Domed ends Figure 3.5-2 — Design curves for unpierced domed ends Figure 3.5-3 — Geometry of cone/cylinder intersection without knuckle: large end Figure 3.5-4 — Values of coefficient ¶ for cone/cylinder intersection without knuckle Figure 3.5-5 — Geometry of cone/cylinder intersection with knuckle: large end Figure 3.5-6 — Geometry of cone/cylinder intersection: small end Figure 3.5-7 — Offset cone Figure 3.5-8 — Positions of openings or nozzles in dished ends (for weld details see Annex E) Figure 3.5-9 — Design curves for protruding nozzles in spherical vessels (d/D < 0.5) and for protruding nozzles in cylindrical and conical vessels (d/D < %) Figure 3.5-10 — Design curves for flush nozzles in spherical shells (d/D < 0.5) and for flush nozzles in conical shells (d/D < %) Figure 3.5-11 — Design curves for flush nozzles in cylindrical shells (0 < d/D < 0.3) Figure 3.5-12 — Design curves for flush nozzles in cylindrical shells (0.2 < d/D k 1.0) Figure 3.5-13 — Nozzle in a conical shell Figure 3.5-14 — Notation applicable to spheres Figure 3.5-15 — Notation applicable to spheres Figure 3.5-15a) — Notation applicable to oblique nozzles in spheres Figure 3.5-16 — Notation applicable to spheres Figure 3.5-17 — Notation applicable to spheres Figure 3.5-18 — Notation applicable to cylinders Figure 3.5-19 — Notation applicable to cylinders Figure 3.5-20 — Notation applicable to cylinders Figure 3.5-21 — Notation applicable to cylinders Figure 3.5-22 — Protruding rim Figure 3.5-23 — Flush rim Figure 3.5-24 — Arrangement factor g Figure 3.5-25 — Nozzle compensation Figure 3.5-26 — Notation applicable to spheres and cylinders Figure 3.5-27 — Notation applicable to spheres and cylinders Figure 3.5-28 — Notation applicable to spheres and cylinders Figure 3.5-29 — Modified flush nozzle compensation Figure 3.5-30 — Modified protruding nozzle compensation Figure 3.5-31 — Maximum branch to body thickness ratio © BSI 1 March 2004 Al/1 Cu/1 Ni/1 I V 1/13 3/11 3/13 3/17 3/18 3/19 3/19 3/21 3/24 3/27 3/28 3/29 3/34 3/36 3/37 3/37 3/38 3/38 3/39 3/39 3/39 3/40 3/40 3/41 3/41 3/41 3/42 3/43 3/43 3/44 3/45 3/46 3/54 v PD 5500:2003 Figure 3.5-32 — Reinforcement of openings and branches Figure 3.5-33 — Reinforcement of non-radical branches Figure 3.5-34 — Typical welded flat ends and covers (for typical weld joint details, see Figure E.38) Figure 3.5-35 — Typical non-welded flat ends and covers Figure 3.5-36 — Factor C for welded flat ends [to Figure 3.5-34b) and Figure 3.5-34c)] for ecyl/ecylo = 1 to 3 Figure 3.5-37 — Factor C for welded flat ends [to Figure 3.5-34b) and Figure 3.5-34c)] for ecyl/ecylo = 3 to > 10 Figure 3.5-38 — Typical stays: areas supported by stays Figure 3.5-39 — Spherically domed and bolted end (narrow faced gasket) Figure 3.6-1 — Effective lengths of cylinder Figure 3.6-2 — Values of ¼ Figure 3.6-3 — Values of ncyl Figure 3.6-4 — Values of % Figure 3.6-5 — Stiffening ring with unsupported section Figure 3.6-6 — Stiffening ring details Figure 3.6-7 — Values of ¶ Figure 3.6-8 — Conical sections: typical stiffeners Figure 3.8-1 — Loose keyed flange with mating components Figure 3.8-2 — Forces and lever arms on loose keyed flange Figure 3.8-3 — Typical lip arrangement for swing bolted flange Figure 3.8-4 — Location of gasket load reaction Figure 3.8-5 — Values of T, U, Y and Z Figure 3.8-6 — Values of F (integral method factors) Figure 3.8-7 — Values of V (integral method factors) Figure 3.8-8 — Values of FL (loose hub flange factors) Figure 3.8-9 — Values of VL (loose hub flange factors) Figure 3.8-10 — Values of f (hub stress correction factors) Figure 3.8-11 — Ungasketted, seal-welded-type flanges Figure 3.8-12 — Contact face between loose and stub flanges in a lap joint where diameters A2 and B2 are defined by the same component Figure 3.9-1 — Design curves: determination of C0 Figure 3.9-2 — Design curves: determination of Fo Figure 3.9-3 — Design curves: determination of Fo Figure 3.9-4 — Design curves: determination of Fi Figure 3.9-5 — Design curves: determination of Fi Figure 3.9-6 — Typical clamped and simply supported configurations for floating head or U-tubesheets Figure 3.9-7 — Flexural efficiency: triangular layout Figure 3.9-8 — Flexural efficiency: square layout Figure 3.9-9 — Tubesheet: determination of Fq Figure 3.9-10 — Tubesheet: determination of H for Xa > 4.0 Figure 3.9-11 — Tubesheet: determination of H for Xa < 4.0 Figure 3.9-12 — Determination of the buckling length Lk Figure 3.10-1 — Butt welds in plates of unequal thickness (see Annex E for details of weld preparation) Figure 3.10-2 — Butt welds with offset of median lines (see 3.10.2) Figure 3.11-1 — Some acceptable types of jacketted vessels Figure 3.11-2 — Typical blocking ring and sealer ring construction Figure 3.11-3 — Typical limpet coil vi Page 3/55 3/63 3/71 3/72 3/74 3/75 3/78 3/80 3/104 3/105 3/106 3/107 3/109 3/109 3/113 3/114 3/133 3/133 3/134 3/142 3/160 3/161 3/162 3/162 3/163 3/164 3/165 3/165 3/186 3/187 3/188 3/189 3/190 3/191 3/192 3/193 3/196 3/197 3/198 3/202 3/208 3/209 3/212 3/213 3/214 © BSI 1 March 2004 PD 5500:2003 Page 3/214 4/9 4/11 5/9 Figure 3.11-4 — Limpet coil arrangements Figure 4.2-1 — Profile gauge details and application Figure 4.3-1 — A thin limpet coil weld detail Figure 5.6-1 — Illustration of welded joints for non-destructive testing Figure 5.7-1 — Partial non-destructive testing (NDT) category 2 constructions 5/16 Figure A.1 — Stress categories and limits of stress intensity A/7 Figure A.2 — Curve for the evaluation of ¹ A/12 Figure A.3 — Use of templates to check tolerances (see A.3.5.1.3) A/13 Figure B.1 — Stresses in a cylindrical shell under combined loading B/6 Figure B.2 — Stresses in a spherical shell under combined loading B/7 Figure B.3 — Stresses in a conical shell under combined loading B/8 Figure B.4 — Global loads B/9 Figure C.1 — Illustration of fluctuating stress C/2 Figure C.2 — Example of pressure vessel fatigue loading cycle and determination of stress ranges C/6 Figure C.3 — Fatigue design S–N curves for weld details applicable to ferritic steels up to and including 350 °C, austenitic stainless steels up to and including 430 °C and aluminium alloys up to and including 100 °C C/7 Figure C.4 — Fatigue design S–N curves for bolting applicable to ferritic steels up to and including 350 °C, austenitic stainless steels up to and including 430 °C and aluminium alloys up to and including 100 °C C/7 Figure C.5 — Interaction criteria for assessing coplanar embedded slag inclusions C/9 Figure C.6 — Deviations from design shape at seam welds C/27 Figure C.7 — Weld toe dressing C/28 Figure D.1 — Permissible design reference temperature/design reference thickness/required impact test temperature relationships for as-welded components (see also Table D.2, Note 2) D/3 Figure D.2 — Permissible design reference temperature/design reference thickness/required impact test temperature relationships for post-weld heat-treated components (see also Table D.2, Note 2) D/4 Figure D.3 — Examples of details for attaching non-critical components to pressure shell D/7 Figure D.4 — Location of Charpy V-notch specimens in weld metal (as-welded vessels) D/10 Figure D.5 — Location of Charpy V-notch specimens in weld metal (stress relieved vessels) D/11 Figure D.6 — Location of Charpy V-notch specimens in heat affected zone D/11 Figure D.7 — Example of detail for avoidance of severe thermal gradients D/12 Figure E.1 — Typical weld preparations for butt welds using the manual metal-arc process E/2 Figure E.2 — Typical weld preparations for circumferential welds where the second side is inaccessible for welding E/3 Figure E.3 — Typical weld preparations for butt welds using the submerged arc welding process E/6 Figure E.4 — Typical weld preparations for butt welds using the manual inert gas arc welding for austenitic stainless and heat resisting steels only E/7 Figure E.5 — Typical weld details for circumferential lap joints E/8 © BSI 1 March 2004 vii PD 5500:2003 Figure E.6 — Standard weld details Figure E.7a) — Limitations on geometry of fillet weld applied to the edge or a part Figure E.7b) — Transverse and longitudinal sections of branch connections Figure E.8 — Weld details for set-in branches Figure E.9 — Set-on branches (see E.2.4.2) Figure E.10 — Set-on branches Figure E.11 — Set-on branches (see E.2.4.2) Figure E.12 — Set-on branches Figure E.13 — Set-on branches Figure E.14 — Set-on branches (see E.2.4.2) Figure E.15 — Set-on branches (see E.2.4.2) Figure E.16 — Set-in branches: fillet welded connections Figure E.17 — Set-in branches: partial penetration butt welded connections Figure E.18 — Set-in branches: full penetration connections (see E.2.4.2) Figure E.19 — Set-in branches: full penetration connections (see E.2.4.2) Figure E.20 — Set-in branches: full penetration connections with asymmetrical butt joints (see E.2.4.2) Figure E.21 — Set-in branches: full penetration connections welded from one side only Figure E.22 — Forged branch connections (see E.2.4.1 and E.2.4.2) Figure E.23 — Forged branch connections Figure E.24 — Set-on branches with added compensation rings Figure E.25 — Set-in branches with added compensation rings Figure E.26 — Set-in branches with added compensat...
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