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Week 1 Slides - Syllabus 1 Week 1 Syllabus 2 Week 1...

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Week 1 Syllabus 1
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Week 1 Syllabus 2
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Week 1 Syllabus 3
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Week 1 Syllabus 4
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Week 1 5
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Organic Chemistry II UC-Berkeley Extension x36B Fall 2011 August 29, 2011 Week 1: Aldehydes & Ketones: the carbonyl group, nomenclature, physical properties, reaction themes, reactions with carbon nucleophiles, Wittig reaction, hydrates, hemiacetals, acetals, acetals as protecting groups, imines/Schiff bases
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Week 1 The Carbonyl Group 9 ! In this and the next few weeks, we study the physical and chemical properties of classes of compounds containing the carbonyl C=O group. ! aldehydes and ketones ! carboxylic acids ! acid halides, acid anhydrides, esters, and amides ! enolate anions
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Week 1 The Carbonyl Group 10 ! The carbonyl group consists of one sigma bond formed by the overlap of sp 2 hybrid orbitals and one pi bond formed by the overlap of parallel 2 p orbitals ! pi bonding and pi antibonding MOs for formaldehyde
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Week 1 Structure 11 ! The functional group of an aldehyde is a carbonyl group bonded to an H atom & a carbon atom . ! The functional group of a ketone is a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms .
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Week 1 Nomenclature - Aldehydes 12
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Week 1 Nomenclature: Aldehydes 13 ! The IUPAC naming retains the common names benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde, as well formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
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Week 1 Nomenclature: Ketones 14
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Week 1 Order of Precedence 15 ! For compounds that contain more than one functional group indicated by a suffix.
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Week 1 Common Names 16 ! For an aldehyde, the common name is derived from the common name of the corresponding carboxylic acid. ! For a ketone, name the two alkyl or aryl groups bonded to the carbonyl carbon and add the word ketone.
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Week 1 Physical Properties 17 ! Oxygen is more electronegative than carbon (3.5 vs 2.5) and, therefore, a C=O group is polar. ! Aldehydes and ketones are polar compounds and interact in the pure state by dipole-dipole interaction. ! They have higher boiling points and are more soluble in water than nonpolar compounds of comparable molecular weight.
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Week 1 Effect of intermolecular forces on boiling point
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