Species: Related genetically.Genes that do not change much: genes that code for enymes that many organisms must have.-Convergent evolution: 2 different organisms that converge together.-Divergent evolution: 2 e from the same ancestor but diverge.Typological: Speciation: process by which new species are formed from preexisting ones.Darwin’s = speciation = multiplication species.Reproduction at individual level vs. reproduction at species levelind: it is programmed, it id driven in particular directions. Output determined by genetic mkeup, the partner.specieS: not programmed. Constrained by phenotypes and phenotypes. Natural selection, mutations, genetic drift.Biological species concept:-Speciation occurs when organisms acquire mechanisms to isolate reproduction. Occurs by preventing fertilization (prezygotic isolation). -If fertilization occurs, and end up with hybrids, but they cannot reproduce (sterile) or are inviable (die). )post-zygotic isolation).
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