u11ohnotes18f2005(6)

u11ohnotes18f2005(6) - Indicators chemicals that change...

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Indicators Æ chemicals that change color, depending on the pH Two examples, out of many: litmus …………………red in acid, blue in base phenolphthalein ……. .clear in acid, pink in base Measuring pH litmus paper phenolphthalein pH paper -- contains a mixture of various indicators -- each type of paper measures a range of pH -- pH 0 to 14 universal indicator -- is a mixture of several indicators -- pH 4 to 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R O Y G B I V pH meter -- measures small voltages in solutions -- calibrated to convert voltages into pH -- precise measurement of pH Basically, pH < 7 or pH > 7
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Neutralization Reaction ACID + BASE Æ SALT + WATER ___HCl + ___NaOH Æ ________ + ________ ___HCl + ___NaOH Æ ___NaCl + ___H 2 O 1 HCl + 1 NaOH Æ 1 NaCl + 1 H 2 O ___H 3 PO 4 + ___KOH Æ _________ + ________ H 1+ PO 4 3– K 1+ OH 1– ___H 3 PO 4 + ___KOH Æ ___K 3 PO 4 + ___H 2 O 1 H 3 PO 4 + 3 KOH Æ 1 K 3 PO 4 + 3 H 2 O ___H 2 SO 4 + ___NaOH Æ _________ + ________ H 1+ SO 4 2– Na 1+ OH 1– ___H
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u11ohnotes18f2005(6) - Indicators chemicals that change...

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