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Lecture 19--Justice--Liberty or Equality In Competition ctools

Lecture 19--Justice--Liberty or Equality In Competition ctools

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Justice: Liberty or  Equality?—Are They  in Competition? Lecture 19:  Tues, March 22 nd   1
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Outline of Lecture Continuing Rawls In OP, people would choose two principles:  Liberty Principle Democratic Equality Principle Part I: The Fair Equality of Opportunity Principle Part II: The Difference Principle Principle of choice = maximin Objections to Rawls’ View Anderson & Mill on Republican Freedom Distinguish negative, positive, & republican freedom Why think republican freedom trumps negative? Why think positive freedom trumps negative?
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Democratic Equality II: ? The 2 nd  part of the Democratic Equality  Principle governs how income, wealth, and  economic resources are distributed What would a person in the OP choose given that  they are trying to maximize their self-interest  BUT they don’t know what place in society they have when the  veil is lifted  ?
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How Would  You  Choose  Behind the Veil of  Ignorance? 4
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How Would You Choose  Behind the Veil of  Ignorance? 5
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Democratic Equality II: The  Difference Principle The Difference Principle: inequality (in  economic resources) is acceptable only when it  is “to everyone’s advantage” “to everyone’s advantage”: Rawls means that the  worst off group of people get priority thus,  inequalities are acceptable only if they benefit the  worst off When would an inequality benefit the worst off? Possible example: economic incentives might be necessary  to encourage people to be surgeons 6
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Does the U.S. Fulfill the  Difference Principle? 7 CEO vs. Average Worker Pay  Ask: Does a distribution in which CEOs regularly  make 100 times what the average worker does—and  the top executives make 800 times what the average  worker does—benefit  the worst off people ? Probably not How do we know?  Compare countries  with higher CEO  pay to countries with lower CEO pay Scandinavian countries: much lower CEO pay, less poverty U.S. much higher CEO pay, more poverty Doesn’t appear that
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Principle of Choice: Maximin Maximin: maximize the situation of the  “minimum” (or worst off) group World A World B World C Group 1  (best off) $120,000 $200,000 $75,000 Group 2  (middle) $52,000 $30,000 $47,000 Group 3  (worst off) $14,000 $25,000 $29,000
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Principle of Choice: Maximin,  cont. Why would people in the O.P. choose this way? Remember, they don’t know what they will be like  when the veil is lifted  They don’t even know what their  chances  of being a  certain way are It is rational in a situation of  great uncertainty  to be  averse to risk i.e. “plan for the worst” 9
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Rawls’ Society in Real Life
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