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S-4372-5538-1715, management of fall and winter...

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Fall and Winter Habitats1S-4372-5538-1715, management of fall and winter habitatsThe study by McKinney, McWilliams and Charpentier (2006) examines the factors whichaffect winter habitats of waterfowl, with specific reference to Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.The authors note that urbanization has a significant effect on these habitats, and that while theeffect of external factors on habitats has been exhaustively studied for marine animals, there arerelatively few studies on how to manage habitats for the benefit of waterfowl. Furthermore, themajority of studies on human impact on waterfowl focus on protected areas, while the authorsaim at studying a non-protected habitat.The methods adopted by McKinney et al (2006) included a diverse sample of habitatsites, such as salt marshes, rocky headlands and open water. Surveys were conducted over all thesites at random intervals to determine the number and species of waterfowl at each site. Habitatand land use was derived from Geographical Information System (GIS) databases, topographicmaps, and aerial photos. Grab sampling was used to assess the density of prey species thatwaterfowl feed on, and the intensity of hunting was also factored into the study. Waterfowl wereclassified into four species assemblages according to type of habitat, and these four groups werecompared with habitat characteristics and landscape characteristics. These were used to constructmodels of habitat use.The authors found that open water species were most numerous, with marsh ducks innext place. The density of waterfowl increased with latitude, possibly due to the orientation ofNarragansett Bay. Intensity of hunting, however, increased with latitude, and was shown to havean effect on waterfowl abundance. There was wide variation in the habitat and landscapecharacteristics across sites.
Fall and Winter Habitats2The density of waterfowl in the study area was less than that of comparable areas nearby,and this was attributed to the urban and unprotected nature of the study area. High latitude sitesin the study area were better protected from wind and waves, and so they had greater waterfowldensity. Habitat models were consistent with those of previous studies (Madsen, 1998). Rockyheadland species assemblages recorded higher abundance at lower latitudes, contrary to thegeneral trend, as their preferred habitats are located at lower latitudes. It was also found thatabundance of waterfowl was directly proportional to the extent of vegetated land around a site,and inversely proportional to the amount of residential land around a site.In the study by Jorde, Krapu, Crawford & Hay (1984), the effects of weather on mallardducks wintering in Nebraska was examined. Low temperatures are cited as a major influence onthe activities of mallards. The authors sought to shed more light on the adaptations of mallards tonorthern winters and how this affected their distribution. They aimed to do this by studying a

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Term
Spring
Professor
wachiwa
Tags
Duck, Anatidae, Winter Habitats

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