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Reading%20Guide%20Chapter%202

Reading%20Guide%20Chapter%202 - 10.Explain why strong...

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Science 2107 Reading Guide Chapter 2 1. Distinguish between an element and a compound. 2. Identify the four elements that make up 96% of living matter. 3. Define the term trace element and give an example. 4. Draw and label a simplified model of an atom. Explain how this model  simplifies our understanding of atomic structure. 5. Distinguish between each of the following pairs of terms: a. neutron and proton b. atomic number and mass number c. atomic weight and mass number 6. Explain how the atomic number and mass number of an atom can be used  to determine the number of neutrons. 7. Explain how two isotopes of an element are similar. Explain how they are  different. 8. Define the terms energy and potential energy. Explain why electrons in the  first electron shell have less potential energy than electrons in higher  electron shells. 9. Distinguish among nonpolar covalent, polar covalent and ionic bonds.
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Unformatted text preview: 10.Explain why strong covalent bonds and weak bonds are both essential in living organisms. 11.Distinguish between hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. 12. Give an example that illustrates how a molecule’s shape can determine its biological function. 13.Explain what is meant by a chemical equilibrium. List of terms for chapter 2 Matter Atom Elements Compounds Essential elements (Which four of these make up 96% of living matter?) Trace elements Subatomic particles Neutrons Protons Electrons Atomic Number Mass Number Atomic Weight Isotope Energy Potential energy Valence electrons Electron orbitals Valence electrons Covalent bond Single bond Double bond Molecule Electronegativity Nonpolar covalent bond Polar covalent bond Ions Ionic Bonds Anion Cation Hydrogen bond Van der Waals interactions Chemical reaction Reactants Products Chemical equilibrium...
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