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Chapter%202%20outline - Figure 2.13 Valence electrons...

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The Chemical Context of Life Chemistry of Life Matter Mass Weight Elements Compounds Essential elements Trace elements Elements that make 96% of living matter  Table 2.1 Elements An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms Subatomic particles  Protons  Neutrons  daltons  Electrons Atomic Number and Atomic Mass Atomic Number  Atomic Mass Isotopes of Hydrogen Simplified models of an atom Figure 2.5 The Energy Levels of Electrons Energy Kinetic Energy Potential energy Electron Energy levels Figure 2.8 Electron Configuration and Chemical Properties
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Figure 2.9 Valence electrons Electron Orbitals Figure 2.10 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms Covalent Bond Figure 2.12 Single and double covalent bonds Figure 2.11 A,B Covalent bonding in compounds Figure 2.11 C,D Nonpolar covalent bond Polar covalent bond Electronegativity Polar Covalent Bond
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Unformatted text preview: Figure 2.13 Valence electrons determine the number of covalent bonds an atom may form Electron transfer between two atoms • Ions • Anion • Cation • An ionic bond Figure 2.14 • Ionic compounds – salts Figure 2.15 Weak Chemical Bonds Several types of weak chemical bonds are important in living systems Hydrogen Bonds Figure 2.16 Van der Waals Interactions Weak chemical bonds play key roles – Shape The precise shape of a molecule – Determines function – Is determined by valence orbitals • s and p orbitals may hybridize Figure 2.17 • Molecular shape – specificity Figure 2.18 A Chemical reaction – definition – reactants – products • Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Chemical equilibrium is reached when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal • 3H2 + N2 ↔ 2 NH3...
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Chapter%202%20outline - Figure 2.13 Valence electrons...

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