MA108part1W

MA108part1W - Introduction The Elements of Graphing Data '...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction The Elements of Graphing Data ' 7 355 355 )lex _ na Loa 335 El 335 D arles man '_ ilater 315 315 ‘5 1960 1970 1980 1990 - 1960 1970 1980 1990 case, 002 (ppm) Trend Year Year 1111111 I 1‘11‘111111111111111‘111 , )sition - . 3 ;m is I out by figure, right ’ g, . _3 the r artical Seasonal O Oscillatory level ually , the nt Remainder time. Year he 1.2 THE POWER OF GRAPHICAI; DATA DISPLAY. Visualization provides insight that n cannot be appreciated by any other approach to learning from data. On this graph, the , top left panel displays monthly average 002 concentrations from Mauna Loa, Hawaii. pheric The remaining panels show frequency components of variation in the data. The heights he of the five bars on the right sides of the panels portray the same changes in ppm on the five vertical scales. these Introduction The Elements of Graphing Data 11 To assess the issue, the engineers studied a graph of the data shown in Figure 1.4. Each data point was from a shuttle flight in which the O-rings had experienced thermal distress. The horizontal scale is O-ring temperature, and the vertical scale is the number of O—rings “3 experiencing distress. The graph revealed no effect of temperature on that the number of stress problems, and Morton Thiokel, the rocket manufacturer, communicated to NASA the conclusion that the S a "temperature data [are] not conclusive on predicting primary O—ring 6- blowby” [43]. The next day Challenger took off, the O-rings failed, and rigin} the shuttle exploded, killing the seven people on board. .wn * that [Y _I_. _.._L ._..l l_ __L 3 O ‘ re iiS g oints g 2 ° 1 .4 STATISTICAL REASONING. These ukey g data were graphed by space shuttle : engineers the evening before the OE) Challenger accident to determine the E 1 00 o 8 dependence of O-ring failure on 2 temperature. Data for no failures was not graphed in the mistaken belief that it was ‘ DISPLAY This irrelevant to the issue of dependence. rations 0f aerOSOIS' The engineers concluded from the graph ’ms' There is a 0 that there is no dependence. tal scale is wrong ’ "'— —'_ 7—— '—_" 60 70 so scales should be ’lUdge the Calculated Joint Temperature (°F) The conclusion of the January 27 analysis was incorrect, in part, because the analysis of the data by the graph in Figure 1.4 was faulty. It \ omitted data for flights in which no O-rings experienced thermal distress. Figure 1.5 shows a graph with all data included. Now a pattern emerges. The Rogers Commission, a group that intensively studied the Challenger mission afterward, concluded that the engineers had omitted the no-stress data in the mistaken belief that they would contribute no information to the thermal—stress question [43]. ihuttle een ay was : the ors. \, A-i L‘JL. an, Number of lncidences o§oo8 oo 08 0000 r I ’—r‘“ ’1— l 60 70 80 temperature is revealed. Calculated Joint Temperature (°F) The graphical analysis of the O—ring data failed, not because of the display method used, as with the aerosol data, but rather because of a poor choice of the statistical information selected for the graph. This arose because of a flaw in the statistical reasoning that underlay the graph. The flaw violated a basic statistical principle: in the analysis of failure data, the values of a causal variable when no failures occur are as relevant to the analysis as the values when failures occur. Statistical thinking is vital to data display. A number of statistical principles are} discussed in Chapters 2 and 3. Brain Masses and Body Masses of Animal Species Figure 1.6 is a graph from Carl Sagan’s intriguing book, The Dragons of Eden [1 O7 ]. The graph shows the brain masses and body masses, both on a log scale, of a collection of animal species. We can see that log brain mass and log body mass are correlated, but this was not the main reason for making the graph. Introduction 1.5 STATISTICAL REASONlNG. The complete set of O-ring data is now graphed, including the observations with no failures. A dependence of failure on The Elements 10,000 5,000 1 ,000 500 100 50 10.0 5.0 1 Brain mass in grams 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.01 0.00 .6; THE CHALi ‘b dy-masses of asure, but the ‘What Saga . ti‘nvestig "5 measure 1 mass of p gt a p11, “of all hir- its body vx rmtking are d The first p1 - ii'ilic‘lligence n i brain mass), such as all m; mass. The ge: t‘i‘illill‘lOD Apple is grabbing mobile ad share from Google, Yahoo, Microso... http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2010/09/27/apple—is-grabbing-mobil... TOPICS: (300 Is 24/7 Enterprise Financial Mobile PCs Social Tablets Apple 2.0 Mac news from outside the reality distortion field Apple is grabbing mobile ad share from _ _ About This Author Goog Ie, Yahoo, Microsoft and Nokla phmp macaw.“ Posted by Philip Elmer-DeWitt Steve Jobs, goes the old joke at Apple, is surrounded by September 27. 2010 5:45 AM a reality distortion field; get too close and you might believe what he's saying. Apple has made believers out Smaller rivals like Jumptap and Millennial Media are also gaining, according to IDC 0‘ m‘”'°“s °f wsmmers ‘ and made a '0‘ 0‘ '“VESWS rich -« but Elmer-DeVlfitt believes that an ounce of skepticism never hurts when writing about the company. He should know. He's been covering Apple - and watching Steve Jobs operate — since 1982. 2010 Mobile Ad Market Share Email This Author Subscribe to Apple 2.0: RSS feed [ email newsletter fishers 16% Nexis US. only Source: IDC via Bloomberg Businessweek The pie chart at right is somewhat premature, given that it is lDC's best guess -- via Bloomberg Businessweek -- of what the $500 million U.S. mobile advertising market will look three months from now. But it's an indication of how the winds have shifted. Apple (AAPL), which had 0% share of the market before it bought Quattro Wireless in January and launched iAd in June, will end the year at 21%, according to IDC. a White House defends pace of health-care lT rollout Steve Jobs‘ mark on ABC's Lost 9 Where did that share come from? Chiefly from Google ((3006), Yahoo (Y HOO), Microsoft (MSFT) and Nokia (NOK), according to the Businessweek piece. 15 Motorola back? a l: The real reason why consumers won't pay online lDC's before-and-after numbers for the biggest losers below the fold. L, EPA“) tech companies. build products that break down Dec. 2009 Dec. 2010 a Liberty Global's global retreat Google 27% 21% Yahoo 12% 9% See All Posts Microsoft 10% 7% Nokia 5% 2% . . . Recent Posts [Follow Philip Elmer-DeVlfitt on Twitter @philiped] a Ning CEO Building a betterweb site . . . . . . . . . V» Can anybody beat the iPad? Tags: Apple, Advertrsrng, IDC, Microsoft, Nokia, Yahoo, Mobile, iAd, Google, mobile advertising 0 Comments |Add a Comment 17 YouTube celebrates debate on anniversary of Nixon v. Kennedy - a Samsung shows home automation using Android Today in Tech: News around the Web « ls AAPL over-valued? Not compared with the other ultra-large market caps Today in Tech: News around the Web » Search Sponsored Links Apple iPad for $23.74? Macbook Pro for $45.63? "Special Report: Macbooks and iPads are being auctioned for an incredible 80% off“ Consumer'l'lpsDigestiorg Contributors Penny Stock Gaining 5000% Sign up for Free to receive alerts about the next stock to jump 5000% www.PennvStockGains.com 2 of 4 9/27/10 11:27 AM gm fiaflwfiflfififififihfigflh ‘ .3158 .59» 9506 SEE 9 59mm «in modem a 83 .3235 8 umumufi 80¢ SEC 3% S 8353 was 8.2% 8 KC“ cam twang mEu >655 .m await < 6223 3ch3 PE mm: 25 mi: «339 Na Saddam 05 m“ H; MEWS SEEM mgnumkxm SW NE :88 95 3:3 mflmmsuflu NE 5qu a? Im<m0 Nahum—"Em Z< >m Z<m_>_ m>> ._.<_._>> _.._. 2.53 .59» 95am: buwwum SB 399% ufiuoubo mo 8365a 08 mo wmfiurfiofi H59» mfimmuuofi Um: :9» wwwxowm 8than 2: we 823me 9:“ £85935 5 at? .8 E1353: mammam BEG :9» 552$? $9925 0 .n. E. _E_m r. 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MA108part1W - Introduction The Elements of Graphing Data '...

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