lec 25 competition210

lec 25 competition210 - Competition= (- - interaction)...

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Competition= (- - interaction) Individuals often must compete with individuals within and between species to survive and reproduce Individuals (and species) that to not attempt to capture scarce necessary resources go extinct. Therefore, selection has favored individuals (and their species) that have evolved to withstand and do well under competition. Intraspecific and Interspecific competition Intraspecific competition (for food, mates etc.) is between members of the same species. * density dependent Interspecific competition: -/- interaction between members of different species Strongest competition is intraspecific (similar requirements) and between similar species Types of Competition Exploitation (scramble) individuals compete by removing resource(s) indirect - no direct contact required Interference (direct interaction) reduction in competitors ability to obtain resources without consuming the resources can be direct and physical (territories) or can be more subtle - disturbance of prey, toxic chemicals Scramble competition for resources Particularly strong for plants: all share same few limiting resources (water,
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N, P, K . ..) In a homogeneous environment with a single limiting nutrient, one species will outcompete all others: the one that can survive and reproduce at the lowest resource level Allelopathy – chemical interference Chaparral shrubs in California like Sage use toxic chemicals (terpenes) to inhibit growth of other plants (grasses) Allelopathy is common in other species: sponges, bacteria, fungi Competition between species Competition among ecologically similar species a major factor that determines the structure of animal and plant
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lec 25 competition210 - Competition= (- - interaction)...

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