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Lecture 1 (Fall 2011)

Lecture 1 (Fall 2011) - Biology 73 – Animal Behavior Dr...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology 73 – Animal Behavior Dr. Catherine Lohmann Rm. 129 Wilson Hall Tel: 962-2536 [email protected] Getting into the class For the lecture: please provide your name and PID to me after class and I’ll let you know by Thursday if you’re in Attend the first section that fits your schedule and talk to the TA. Labs start next week - week of Aug. 29th. NOTE: lab is NOT required (may be used to satisfy organismal requirement for majors) Syllabus: Course Goals The course teaches the science of animal behavior. We will focus on what animals do, how they do it, why they do it, and perhaps most importantly, how WE as scientists can be sure of our information. Syllabus: Course Goals That means we will spend a great deal of time discussing experimental procedures and results. You will be challenged to understand the experiments and conclusions and to think about them analytically . Syllabus: Grading 1 homework assignment: 10 pts 2 midterms: 100 pts each 1 cumulative final exam: 150 pts TOTAL: 360 pts NO EXTRA CREDIT A curve may be applied as needed Syllabus: Text book Textbook: Animal Behavior: an Evolutionary Approach. By John Alcock. 9th edition. eBook available. Reading assignments: posted on Blackboard as the semester progresses What is animal behavior? Definition: any observable thing that an animal does Covers a broad range of activities from involuntary muscle movements to animal intelligence and social behavior Why study animal behavior? 1. To exploit animals more efficiently – Why study animal behavior? 2. To protect and conserve animals better Why study animal behavior? 3. Academic reasons: people get curious and simply want to know How do birds migrate? Why do lions roar? What good is a peacock’s tail? Why study animal behavior? 4.Because it is… COOL! What kinds of questions can be asked? Mechanistic: how does the animal do that? How does wolf pack communicate? communicate? Evolutionary: Survival Value: what Evolutionary: good does it do the animal? Why hunt in packs at all? Why Evolutionary: How did the Evolutionary: behavior evolve? How did they go from hunting singly to hunting in groups? to Developmental: innate or Developmental: learned? Do they know how from birth or do they need adults to teach them? adults Techniques for Studying Behavior Behavior Observation Can see correlations (my dog barks Can when deer enter my yard – coincidence?) when Experimentation Can see causation (if I stop the deer Can from entering, my dog does not bark) from Comparative Approach Evolutionary questions (foxes that Evolutionary live alone do not bark at strangers – did barking evolve with pack living?) barking Techniques for Studying Behavior Behavior Example of an Example observational study: observational Why do crab-eating Why macaques (a southeast Asian monkey) use special sleeping trees? The Behavior: Crab-eating macaques sleep in special trees macaques Possible explanations: Possible 1) Food source 2) Predator avoidance 3) Advertisement Not a food source: Not Trees were rarely in fruit Each day the monkeys made Each long foraging trips away from the sleeping tree the Monkeys typically choose exposed sites exposed Potential predators sometimes chose same trees chose In 9 months of near daily observation, researchers never observed any predation observed Most troops chose trees located opposite the sleeping tree of another troop another And, when troops slept opposite each other they did not cross the river to forage in the other troop’s territory troop L group always stayed on west side of river R Group always stayed on East side – opposite of L Group P Group roamed on both sides and there was no troop on opposite side Conclusion: Conclusion: Food source and Antipredator Food theories not favored theories Advertisement theory is Advertisement supported supported Techniques for Studying Behavior Behavior Example of an Example experimental study: experimental How do night-flying OWLS How and BATS find their way in the dark? (A series of experiments performed in the 1790s by Spallanzani) Spallanzani Spallanzani’s 1 experiment Spallanzani st Manipulation: place place owls in complete darkness and test flying ability flying Result: owls could owls not fly well Conclusion: owls Conclusion: need sight for flight need Spallanzani’s 2 experiment Spallanzani nd Manipulation: place place bats in complete darkness and test flying ability flying Result: bats flew bats fine fine Conclusion: bats Conclusion: don’t need sight for flight flight Spallanzani’s 3rd experiment Spallanzani Manipulation: put black hoods on bats and test put flying ability flying Compare stomach contents of blindfolded bats Compare and controls and Result: black-hooded bats couldn’t fly Conclusion: bats need sight for flight Spallanzani’s 4th experiment Spallanzani’ Manipulation: put transparent hoods on bats and put test flying ability test Compare stomach contents of hooded bats and Compare controls controls Result: clear-hooded bats couldn’t fly Conclusion: What gives – the hood was the Conclusion: trouble whether light got through or not! trouble Spallanzani’s 5th experiment Spallanzani’ Manipulation: blind bats without covering mouth Compare stomach contents of blinded bats and Compare controls controls Result: blinded bats flew just fine Conclusion: bats don’’t really need sight for t successful flight successful Spallanzani’s 6th experiment Spallanzani Manipulation: plug ears of bats and test flying plug ability ability Compare stomach contents of deafened bats Compare and controls and Result: deafened bats did not fly well and did not deafened feed feed Conclusion: bats need good hearing for Conclusion: successful flight successful Spallanzani’s 7th Spallanzani experiment: the control experiment: The problem: perhaps deafened bats were The distressed by the objects in ears and deafness had no real role in the lack of flying Manipulation: place hollow brass tubes in ears place and test flying ability with 1) tubes plugged or 2) tubes unplugged tubes Compare flying and stomach contents of Compare deafened bats and controls deafened Spallanzani’s 5th experiment: Spallanzani the control the Result: bats did not fly well or feed with bats plugged tubes, but were fine with unplugged tubes unplugged Conclusion: bats need good hearing for Conclusion: successful flight; object in ear not the problem problem Spallanzani’s 8th experiment: Spallanzani touch touch Manipulation: coat wings with varnish or coat flour paste to interfere with sense of touch flour Compare flying and feeding Result: varnished bats did fine Conclusion: touch not required for normal Conclusion: flying or feeding flying Example of Comparative study: the case of Hilara sartor Hilara The phylogenetic approach The Phylogeny: The natural, evolutionary relationships The between groups of living things, inferred using a variety of techniques to establish the relative importance of various shared features The phylogenetic approach The Intuitive relationships between some familiar Intuitive animals animals A common problem for all male Empid flies Empid Females are larger than males Females and cannibalistic; if female does not recognize male as potential mate, she might consider him dinner dinner Solutions to the problem: Empis trigramma: Approaches when female is eating Empis poplitea: Captures prey and gives to female so that Captures she is eating when he approaches to mate she Phylogeny & Behavior of the Empid flies Hilara quadrivattata: Gift wraps dead prey in silk (perhaps to make Gift it look bigger than it is) it Hilara thoracica: Large cocoon, small prey. Less effort for male Phylogeny & Behavior of the Empid flies Hilara maura: Gift wraps … random object Hilara sartor: Gift wraps… nothing at all ...
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