Final Exam study guide

Final Exam study guide - Kimberly Glennon Final Exam Study...

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Kimberly Glennon Final Exam Study Guide Semester Concepts: Age of the earth, oldest evidence of life, age of complex life on earth -Earth is 4.5 billions years old -Evidence of Life on Earth--- 3.5 billions years ago -Complex life on earth--- 540 million years ago Plate tectonics: rate of plate movement, types of plate boundaries, what happens at these plate boundaries -Plate Tectonics Theory explains: -geologic distribution of earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains -distribution of ancient organisms and mineral deposits -and more! -Plate movement driven by convection in mantle -Move about 2-5 cm/yr -Three types of boundaries: 1. Divergent: crust created plates separate, continental or oceanic 2. Convergent: crust destroyed -Three types: 1. Ocean-Ocean: one subducts, trenches and island arc volcanoes 2. Ocean-Continent: ocean plate subducts because denser, volcanic arc 3. Continent-Continent: neither plate subducts, mountain belt 3. Transform: crust maintained, continental or oceanic 3 main types of rocks and how they are used by geologists 1. Igneous: form from crystallization of magma -important because… -understanding the processes that melt and re-solidify rocks -Mainly: effect of released CO2 and sulfur gases affect ocean/atmosphere -Can classify by… -Extrusive (pyroclasts or lava; small crystals) vs Intrusive (magma; large crystals) -Mafic of Felsic (percentage of silica) 2. Sedimentary: physical and chemical residue of weathering; breakdown of rocks; form on earth’s surface -important because… -contain historic record of earth (fossils) -record of surface conditions -paleoenvironments/paleogeography -Classification: 1. Clastic: physically deposited pieces of rock 2. Chemcial: new chemical substances formed by precipitation -Stages of Rock Cycles: Weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition, burial, diagenesis
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3. Metamorphic: rocks altered by pressure, temp., or fluids while in a solid state -important because… -record history of pressure/temp. changes—main way to construct plate tectonic boundaries -Mainly: how crust has evolved -Types of Metamorphism: regional, contact, seafloor, burial, and shock Volcanoes and earthquakes and how these are related to plate tectonics -Earthquakes: occur where rocks being stressed suddenly break along a new or pre-existing fault -focused around plate margins; deep earthquakes at subduction zones -Volcanoes: uprising of magma -Divergent/Spreading Centers: mid ocean ridges is 15% of volcanoes -Convergent/Subduction: 80% of volcanoes, fluid-induced melting, Ring of Fire -Other 5% at hot spots Climate Change (tectonic – historic); both how we reconstruct past climate, magnitude of climate change, and the causes of climate change -Tectonic: Solar Radiation, Plate Tectonics, Greenhouse Gases -Historic: reconstructed from ice cores, pollen, oxygen/carbon isotopes, other fossils, ratio of carbon to magnesium, sea level -In past, has been warmer, colder is rare; we are in an ice age! -In past 125 years, 0.7 degree C warming against natural trends--- Hockey Stick Curve (thanks to
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Final Exam study guide - Kimberly Glennon Final Exam Study...

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