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Exam 3 Study Guide - GLG 111C Exam 3 Study Guide Ch 11...

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GLG 111C Exam 3 Study Guide Ch. 11 Geobiology -3 domains of life (bacteria, archaea, eukarya) and timing of evolution: universal ancestors -bacteria and archaea: evolved first, single celled microorganism; microbes that live in extreme environments -eukarya: evolved later, distinguished by cells with more complicated internal structure (ex. Nucleus); allowed for formation of larger, multi-celled organisms - Diversity of microbes (extremophiles - know extreme environments): microbes that live in environments that would kill any other organisms -thermophiles: tolerant of high temps; Yellowstone -halophiles: tolerant of high salinity; pink, living in seawater evaporation ponds -acidophiles: tolerant of high acidity -barophiles: tolerant of high pressure -anaerobe: no oxygen -Key divisions of organisms (autotrophs, hetertrophs, chemoautotrophs, etc.) -autotrophs: primary producers; plants, energy from sun -heterotrophs: animals; use carbs of autotrophs -chemoautotrophs: black smokers; energy from chemicals, C from CO2 -chemoheterotrophs: energy from chemicals, C from organic compounds -photoautotrophs: energy from sun, C from CO2 -photoheterotrophs: energy from sun, C from organic compounds -Limiting nutrients and biogeochemical cycles -Biogeochemical Cycle: a pathway through which a chemical moves between biological and environmental components of an ecosystem -Limiting Nutrients: -History of life on earth (evolution of life forms, mass extinctions) -earliest fossils: 3.5-3 billion years ago -earliest evidence of photosynthesis: 2.7 billion years ago -earliest O in sedimentary rocks: 2.1-1.8 billion years ago -Cambrian explosion of life: 540 MYA -Which other dates? -Astrobiology (essential ingredients for life), Where are we looking?, Why? -Astrobiology: searching for evidence of life on other planets -looking at Mars and Europa---similar to Earth
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Ch. 12 Volcanism -main types of volcanic rocks (pyroclastic rocks, lava rocks of different chemical composition) -Basaltic: extrusive, mafic, low silica; most common; extremely fluid and hot; from mid- ocean spreading centers and continental rift valleys -Andesitic: extrusive, intermediate silica; flow more slowly; from active continental or oceanic margins above subduction zones. -Rhyolitic: extrusive, felsic, high silica; flows slowest (low temp); from zones where heat from the mantle has melted large volumes of continental crust. -Pyroclastic: hot ash, dust, and gases ejected into atmosphere -types and characteristics of central-vent volcanoes (shield, composite, dome, etc.) -Shield: built up by many basaltic flows; can erupt from sides -Dome: rounded, steep-sided mass of rock formed from felsic flows; too viscous to flow so pile up over vent -Cinder-Cone: formed from pyroclasts, maximum angle, classic volcano shape -Stratovolcano: emits lava and pyroclasts---layered -Crater: bowl shaped pit found at the summit of most volcanoes -Caldera: large, steep walled, basin shaped depression (much larger than a crater) at top -relationship between tectonic boundaries and volcanism (what causes melting, what is the
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