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ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY

ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY - removed along with the...

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ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY      1. Artificially acquired active immunity occurs as a result of vaccines. Vaccination  (immunization) introduces prepared antigens called vaccines into the body. The antigen in the  vaccine has been modified in some way so that it will not cause disease, but will still stimulate an  immune response. Modifications include: Inactivated bacterial toxins (called toxoids) Killed microorganisms Living microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) Possibly just parts of the disease-causing organism are included, not the whole thing      2. Artificially acquired passive immunity involves injecting antibodies already made by another  person or an animal already immune to the disease. The antibodies are found in the serum of the  immune individual (this is the liquid that is left after clotting has occurred and the clot has been 
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Unformatted text preview: removed along with the blood cells). Serum obtained for this purpose is sometimes called antiserum. The study of reactions between antigens and antibodies is known as serology. The serum proteins that include most of the antibodies are the globulins, which include alpha, beta, and gamma globulin. Gamma globulin is the fraction that contains the greatest number of antibodies. When immune serum globulin is injected, it gives immediate protection against the disease, but this protection lasts only as long as the injected antibodies last. Typically, about half of the antibodies are gone after 3 weeks, and the rest will live no longer than a few months....
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