ENDOTOXINS - CNS Septic shock is very dangerous—up to 50...

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ENDOTOXINS Shock in general is a severe drop in blood pressure. Shock caused by gram-negative bacteria is  called septic shock or endotoxic shock. It is also related to a substance produced by macrophages.  Following phagocytosis and lysis of the gram-negative bacteria, the phagocytic cell secretes a  polypeptide called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or cachectin. This substance binds to many body  tissues and alters their metabolism. One effect is damage to capillaries that increases their  permeability and causes them to leak fluid, thus lowering blood pressure and leading to shock.  The lowered blood pressure is also harmful to kidneys, lungs, and the digestive tract.    Certain bacteria such as  Hemophilus influenzae  type b in cerebrospinal fluid cause the release of  IL-1 and TNF, which weaken the protective blood-brain barrier and allow bacteria to enter the 
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Unformatted text preview: CNS. Septic shock is very dangerous—up to 50% of cases may be fatal. We can produce antibodies against endotoxins, but they do not protect us against the effects and seem to even enhance the effects in some cases. Organisms that produce endotoxins include: 1. Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever) 2. Proteus (frequent cause of urinary tract infections) 3. Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal meningitis) If bacteria have grown and produced endotoxins in material that is later sterilized, the endotoxins retain their potency even though no living bacteria are still present. A test called the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) can be used to detect even traces of endotoxin....
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ENDOTOXINS - CNS Septic shock is very dangerous—up to 50...

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