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FERMENTATION TESTS Liquid media containing a pH indicator and only one carbohydrate are used. A very small test  tube is dropped upside down into the larger tube containing the liquid medium. Most  fermentations result in the production of acid. The medium is adjusted to begin at a neutral pH. If  the pH drops due to acid as an end-product of fermentation, this can easily be observed by the  change in color due to the pH indicator. Although not as common as acid production, gas is  sometimes produced, either alone or in addition to the acid. This is observed by examining the  small test tube. If gas has been produced, some of it will accumulate as a gas bubble in the small  tube.    Tests are also done for the ability to break down various amino acids. 
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Unformatted text preview: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Some organisms—plants and some microbes—have the ability to use light energy to synthesize complex organic substances (sugars) from simple inorganic substances. This is photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide gas is the source of the carbon, so this process is also called carbon fixation. 6 CO 2 +12 H 2 O + LIGHT ENERGY C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O Electrons are taken from water and incorporated into sugar. Energy from the sun is used. Two stages: 1. Light reactions—light energy is used to convert ADP and phosphate groups to ATP (photophosphorylation). NADP is reduced to NADPH. 2. Dark (light-independent) reactions—electrons from NADPH plus energy from ATP are used to reduce carbon dioxide to sugar (Calvin-Benson cycle)....
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