HEAT - HEAT beforefermentation.. bacteriaandviruses,(...

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HEAT PASTEURIZATION —Pasteur used mild heat to kill microbes in beer and wine ingredients  before fermentation. The same general idea is now used for milk. Pasteurization kills pathogenic  bacteria and viruses, although some harmless bacteria do survive. (Heat sufficient to kill all  microbes changes the character of the milk.) Bacteria that are left eventually cause the milk to  spoil, but the life is greatly prolonged. Originally, milk was heated to 63 o  C for 30 minutes. Today, new methods use 72 o  C for 15  seconds (high-temperature short-time pasteurization). Milk can be sterilized so that it can be  sealed in a carton and stored without refrigeration. This requires a temperature of 140 o  C for  about 3 seconds (ultra-high temperature pasteurization). This process gives the milk an "off" 
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