LIPID BIOSYNTHESIS Cells synthesize fats by linking glycerol and fatty acids. The glycerol can be produced from one of the intermediates in glycolysis. Fatty acids are built up by linking fragments of acetyl CoA. This is also a process of dehydration synthesis. Lipids are most important as components of biological membranes (phospholipids). Eukaryocytes also incorporate another lipid, cholesterol, into their membranes. Most bacteria do not, but the genus Mycoplasma is an exception to this. Other lipids in microbes: Waxes—lipids in cell walls of acid-fast bacteria Carotenoids—pigments in red, yellow, and orange microbes Lipids are also used for energy storage and make up portions of chlorophyll molecules. AMINO ACID AND PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Some microbes can synthesize all of the 20 amino acids needed for proteins starting from very simple materials, either making each and
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