PLASMIDS - PLASMIDS

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PLASMIDS   Plasmids are small circular pieces of DNA found in some bacteria (but not all) and occasionally  in eucaryocytes such as yeasts. They carry genes which are not found on the bacterial  chromosome. Usually the cell can survive and grow without these genes, but under certain  conditions the plasmid genes may be essential.       1. Conjugative plasmids--the F factor is an example      2. Dissimilation plasmids---code for enzymes that allow the cell to break down and use for  nutrients unusual sugars and hydrocarbons.  Pseudomonas  is an example--it has been found  growing in solutions of some chemical disinfectants. Some of these plasmids make the bacteria  that carry them able to break down toxic material in the environment, oil spills, etc.       3. Plasmids that code for toxins which increase the virulence of bacteria that carry them. This 
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PLASMIDS - PLASMIDS

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