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PORTALS OF EXIT - 1 Microorganisms in the hospital...

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PORTALS OF EXIT   Microbes have preferred portals of entry and exit from the body of a host. This chapter is most  concerned with spread of disease, so portals of exit are discussed.    1. Respiratory tract—pathogens living in this area are carried out by a cough or a sneeze. The list  includes tuberculosis, whooping cough, pneumonia, smallpox, and influenza.   2. Gastrointestinal tract      a. Feces—salmonellosis, cholera, typhoid fever, shigellosis, polio, amoebic dysentery.      b. Saliva—rabies   3. Urogenital tract     a. STDs in secretions from penis & vagina     b. Typhoid fever and brucellosis in urine   4. Drainage from wounds   5. Infected blood       NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS
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These are infections acquired in the hospital.  5 - 15% of hospital patients are affected and about  90,000 people per year die of these infections. Several factors acting together are involved:
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Unformatted text preview: 1. Microorganisms in the hospital environment—in spite of major efforts to control them, large numbers of pathogens live in hospitals. Common organisms include: a. Staphylococcus aureus b. Escherichia coli c. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Unfortunately, many of the strains found in hospitals are resistant to antibiotics. 2. Compromised host---patients weakened by other illnesses or conditions, including broken skin and a suppressed immune system. Invasive procedures such as anesthesia and surgery also increase the risk. 3. Chain of transmission in the hospital a. Direct contact transmission from hospital staff to patient b. Patient to patient c. Fomites d. Ventilation system...
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