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RIBOZYMES - Reduction—the addition of an electron to an...

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RIBOZYMES A fairly recent discovery is that there is a unique type of RNA, called a ribozyme, that can act as  an enzyme. Ribozymes act only on RNA, removing sections and splicing the pieces together.   ENERGY PRODUCTION Chemical bonds hold molecules together. Energy is required to build a bond. That energy is  stored in the bond as long as it lasts, and the energy is released when the bond is broken.  The many small chemical bonds in nutrients are broken and their energy is used to build ATP.  The unstable high-energy bond that attaches the third phosphate group of ATP is easily broken,  releasing the energy to be used for the cell’s energy-requiring processes.    OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS Oxidation—the removal of an electron from an atom or molecule
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Unformatted text preview: Reduction—the addition of an electron to an atom or molecule Molecule A gives an electron to Molecule B A is oxidized B is reduced Whenever one substance is oxidized, another substance must be reduced—the electron must have somewhere to go. This pairing is called oxidation-reduction or redox reactions. Biological oxidations often involve the removal of a hydrogen atom instead of just an electron alone. This can also be called dehydrogenation. Cells use biological oxidation-reduction ractions to extract energy from nutrient molecules. Organic compounds with large numbers of hydrogen atoms make good energy sources for cells. The energy in glucose, for example, is removed in a series of oxidation-reduction reactions and trapped in ATP....
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