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STAGES OF INFLAMMATIO1 - • Prostaglandins released by...

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STAGES OF INFLAMMATION   1. V ASODILATION   AND   INCREASED   PERMEABILITY   OF   BLOOD   VESSELS ---blood vessels increase in diameter  and bring more blood to the area, accounting for redness and heat. Increased permeability of  blood vessels allows defensive substances and cells to move more easily from the blood to the  damaged tissues. As fluid moves into the tissues, this accounts for the swelling (edema)  associated with inflammation. Pain is due to nerve damage, toxins, or the pressure of edema, as  well as chemicals released by damaged tissue. Vasodilation and increased permeability are  caused by chemicals released by damaged cells: Histamine, contained in mast cells, circulating basophils, and platelets, is released when  these cells are injured Kinins are a group of substances in plasma which become activated and attract neutrophils
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Unformatted text preview: • Prostaglandins released by damaged cells intensify the effects of histamine and kinins and aid phagocytes in moving through capillary walls • Leukotrienes are produced by mast cells and basophils. They cause increased permeability of blood vessels and help in adherence of phagocytes • Complement system, a group of proteins present in plasma, become activated and stimulate the release of histamine, attract phagocytes, and promote phagocytosis Vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels also help deliver clotting elements to the injured area. As blood clots form, they help prevent any microbes present from spreading to other areas of the body. A collection of dead cells and body fluids known as pus may form in the area, producing an abscess....
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