Unformatted text preview: SULFUR Used to synthesize sulfur-containing amino acids and vitamins. Sources include sulfate ions (SO 4 2- ), hydrogen sulfide, and the sulfur-containing amino acids. PHOSPHORUS Required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and the phospholipids of cell membranes as well as ATP. The phosphate ion (PO 4 3- ) is an important source. Smaller amounts of potassium, magnesium, and calcium may also be required. These mostly function as cofactors for enzymes. TRACE ELEMENTS Microbes require very small amounts of iron, copper, zinc, and molybdenum. These are called trace elements. They often act as cofactors. OXYGEN We think of oxygen as essential to life—which it is for many organisms—but it also at the same time is a toxic gas. Toxicity: 1. Singlet oxygen—normal molecular oxygen (O 2 ) that has been boosted to a higher energy state and is extremely reactive. It is used in phagocytic cells to help eliminate ingested bacteria.and is extremely reactive....
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- Fall '09
- Oxide, ATP., toxic gas., oxygen—normal molecular oxygen