CS2_37_Graphics

CS2_37_Graphics - CS2 Module 37 Category: CS Concepts...

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CS2 Module 37 Category: CS Concepts Topic: Graphics 1 Objectives Hardware Basic concepts Advanced Concepts
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CS 2 Introduction to Object Oriented Programming Module 37 CS Concepts Graphics 1
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Computer Graphics Computer Graphics Defined Computer graphics involves the creation, storage, manipulation and display of models and images of objects . Sources for models include abstractions of physical, mathematical, engineering, architectural and conceptual structures. Origins Early: small specialized CRT displays and hardcopy plotting. 1980s: desktop raster graphics with Apple Macintosh (and later, IBM PCs and clones). Today: common interactive graphics (e.g., desktop and window managers).
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Desktop computers use bitmap graphics : rectangular array of ones and zeros representing of array of points. These points constitute picture elements, or pixels or pels for short. A raster is a rectangular array of pixels. A scanline is an individual row of pixels Computer Graphics:Terminology Computer Graphics:Terminology Video raster devices display Video raster devices display images by drawing pixels in images by drawing pixels in sequence sequence
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Computer Graphics: Some Hardware Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Monitors contain a filament that, when heated, emits electrons. The resulting beam of electrons is manipulated with electromagnets to target a specific point on a phosphor-coated screen. The screen’s phosphor dots glow briefly when struck. Note: These slides based on materials from Larry F. Hodges, who teaches an excellent course in Computer Graphics!
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Computer Graphics: More Hardware Color CRTs have electron guns for Red, Blue and Green. The phosphor screen has triads of dots that emit R, B or G when struck: Triads might overlap; there are usually around 2.3 to 2.5 triads per pixel
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More Hardware: Shadow Masks A shadow mask is screen with a hole for each phosphor triad. The mask is precisely aligned so the 3 electron beams hit only one phosphor dot in the triad. Convergence point
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Hardware: Scanning Screen images are reduced to a raster, and drawn ("scanned") one scanline at a time. The drawing must be refreshed rapidly (usually 60x per second). Interlaced: Alternating even and odd rows are scanned at a lower rate (usually 30x per second). The alternating scan rows reduces flicker.
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A frame buffer organizes computer memory into a 2D array. Each element corresponds to a pixel. Bit planes or bit depth describe the number of bits used to represent each pixel Example: 640 x 480 x 8 == 640 pixels wide, 480 pixels high, with one byte (8 bits) used to describe the color of each pixel. True color: 24 bitplanes with 8 bits per color. (2^24 = 16,777,216 unique colors)
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CS2_37_Graphics - CS2 Module 37 Category: CS Concepts...

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