Intelligence Possible Causes of the Flynn Effect The precise cause for the Flynn effect is unclear. Researchers speculate that it may be due to environmental factors such as decreased prevalence of severe malnutrition among children, enhancing of skills through television and video games, improved schools, smaller family sizes, higher level of parental education, or improvements in parenting. Cultural and Ethnic Differences Studies have shown a discrepancy in average IQ scores between whites and minority groups in the United States. Black, Native American, and Hispanic people score lower, on average, than white people on standardized IQ tests. Controversy exists about whether this difference is due to heredity or environment. Hereditary Explanations A few well-known proponents support hereditary explanations for cultural and ethnic differences in IQ: • In the late 1960s, researcher Arthur Jensen created a storm of controversy by proposing that ethnic differences in intelligence are due to heredity. He based his argument on his
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