Language and Cognitio6

# Language and Cognitio6 - A heuristic is a general rule of...

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Language and Cognition Algorithms Algorithms are step-by-step procedures that are guaranteed to achieve a particular goal. Example: A chocolate chip cookie recipe is an algorithm for baking chocolate chip cookies. Deductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning is the process by which a particular conclusion is drawn from a set of general premises or statements. The conclusion has to be true if the premises are true. Example: If the premises “All birds have wings” and “A penguin is a bird” are true, then the conclusion “A penguin has wings” must also be true. Inductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning is the process by which a general conclusion is drawn from examples. In this case, the conclusion is likely, but not guaranteed, to be true. Example: Given the premise “All the butterflies Fred has ever seen have wingspans of less than two inches,” Fred might conclude, “All butterflies have wingspans of less than two inches.” Heuristics
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Unformatted text preview: A heuristic is a general rule of thumb that may lead to a correct solution but doesnt guarantee one. Example: A useful heuristic for finishing a timed exam might be Do the easy questions first. Dialectical Reasoning Dialectical reasoning is the process of going back and forth between opposing points of view in order to come up with a satisfactory solution. Example: A student might use dialectical reasoning when she considers the pros and cons of choosing psychology as her college major. Forming Subgoals Forming subgoals involves coming up with intermediate steps to solve a problem. This is a way of simplifying a problem. Example: Susan is asked to solve the analogy problem Prison is to inmate as hospital is to ____. Susans subgoal could be to figure out the relationship between prison and inmate. Once she achieves this subgoal, she can easily find the answer, patient....
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