Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain Role of Myelin People with multiple sclerosis have difficulty with muscle control because the myelin around their axons has disintegrated. Another disease, poliomyelitis, commonly called “polio,” also damages myelin and can lead to paralysis. Communication Between Neurons In 1952, physiologists Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley made some important discoveries about how neurons transmit information. They studied giant squid, whose neurons have giant axons. By putting tiny electrodes inside these axons, Hodgkin and Huxley found that nerve impulses are really electrochemical reactions. The Resting Potential Nerves are specially built to transmit electrochemical signals. Fluids exist both inside and outside neurons. These fluids contain positively and negatively charged atoms and molecules called ions . Positively charged sodium and potassium ions and negatively charged chloride ions constantly cross into and out of neurons, across cell membranes. An inactive neuron is in the
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absolute refractory period, Alan Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley, positively charged sodium, resting state