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CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION Of FUNGI 1. Criteria used : A. Colony morphology Color, size, shape, texture B. Microscopic morphology 1). Hyphae - shape, septate or nonseptate 2). Cell structure - size, shape C. Reproduction (Sporulation) 1). Asexual, sexual, or both 2). Type spore formation 2. Major groups of fungi - see table in text MYCOSES ( Fungal Infections ) A. Growth in, on tissues tissue destruction 1. Superficial (cutaneous) infections : a. Dermatophytes b. Involve keratinized tissues (hair, skin, nails) c. Transmitted by direct, indirect contact 2. Subcutaneous (Intermediate) infections a. Involve tissues underlying skin lymphatics b. Introduced into cuts, wounds c. Source - soil 3. Systemic infections : a. Involve internal organs : lungs other organs b. Inhale spores 4. Opportunistic infections : a. Produced by fungi that generally do not cause disease b. Occur in individuals whose resistance ( immunity ) impaired. B. Production of toxins (mycotoxins) 1. Food poisoning
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2. Carcinogenic
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Unformatted text preview: 3. Hallucinogenic 4. Poisonous - lethal C. Allergies CULTIVATION Of FUNGI ( Growth Requirements ) Compared to bacteria: 1. Rate of growth - slower 2. Nutrients – heterotrophs; absorption 3. Oxygen - molds - aerobic; yeast - aerobic, facultative 4. Temperature - grow at broader ranges easily destroyed by ↑ heat (boiling) 5. pH - grow at broader pH ranges 6. Moisture - don’t require as much moisture 7. Osmolarity - will grow in presence of ↑ osmolarity 8. Light - UV destroys fungal cells IMPORTANCE Of FUNGI A. Ecological Decomposers B. Economical 1. Disadvantages a. Destruction of organic materials ( food, paper, cloth, leather, wood, etc. ) b. Plant diseases ( crops, ornamental ) c. Diseases of humans, animals 2. Advantages a. Manufacture of: 1). alcoholic beverages 2). dairy products 3). baked goods 4). pharmaceuticals ( antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes, vaccines ) b. Genetic engineering...
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