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Diphtheria - Many viruses are causative agents 1 Rhino...

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Diphtheria - Corynebacterium diphtheriae Gram pos. bacillus Virulence: potent dermonecrotic exotoxin (due to lysogenic prophage lysogenic conversion) Transmission: URT secretions - droplet nuclei. Adult carriers. P/E: Nasal passage. Localizes in pharynx Disease: Inc. pd. 2 - 5 days. Secretes exotoxin necrosis superficial tissues ulceration marked inflammation thick (leather-like) exudate forms pseudomembrane blocks trachea suffocation death. Complications: Exotoxin enters bloodstream damages heart, kidneys, CNS. Vaccine: D PT - toxoid Bacterial (Contagious) Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) - Haemophilus aegypticus, H. influenzae Gram neg. bacillus Virulence: Encapsulated, endotoxins (lipids in cell walls) Transmission: Eye, nasal secretions (extremely contagious). Most common vector - hands. P/E: Nasopharynx, conjunctiva Disease: Multiplies on conjunctiva marked inflammation red, swollen eyes, purulent exudate, photophobia. Immunity: none Common Colds - Flu-like Illnesses
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Unformatted text preview: Many viruses are causative agents: 1) Rhino viruses- most common, approx. 100 types, limited to nasal passage. 2) Reoviruses- part of normal flora in some individuals. Infections usually mild, low grade. 3) Corona viruses- can cause colds, mild pneumonia, acute respiratory disorders, gastroenteritis 4) Parainfluenza- in adults limited to URT. In children & infants more severe - pneumonia, croup. 5) Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) - mild infections in adults; serious LRT infections in young children (<1 yr.) - pneumonia (mortality rate 20%) 6) Adenoviruses- common colds, flu-like illnesses Virulence: invade m.m. respiratory tract → cell lysis → inflammation Transmission: URT secretions - hands, fomites P/E: nasopharynx Immunity: Questionable. No vaccine at present. Complications: Secondary bacterial infections (ear infections, pharyngitis, laryngitis, epiglottitis, bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia)...
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