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Fundamental properties of matte1

Fundamental properties of matte1 - split large molecules...

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Fundamental properties of matter - Life depends on the control of chemical reactions , especially on appropriately channeling the chemical energy involved in the formation and breakage of chemical bonds = One way that chemical reactions can be classified is according to the whether the reaction requires or releases energy · Chemical reactions that require an input of energy are called endergonic reactions; in living systems, most of the reactions involved in building macromolecules are endergonic · A chemical reaction that releases energy is called exergonic ; examples of exergonic reactions are those involved in breakdown of nutrients = Reactions can also be understood in terms of the fate of the molecules involved · When two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form a new and larger molecule, the reaction is a synthesis reaction ; synthesis reactions are typically endergonic · Decomposition reactions
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Unformatted text preview: split large molecules into smaller molecules or atoms; decomposition reactions are typically exergonic · Exchange reactions combine both synthesis and decomposition reactions = Note that all chemical reactions, in theory, are reversible- A clue to how living systems control chemical reactions comes from a consideration of factors determining reaction rates = Collision theory suggests that reactions occur when reactants collide in a configuration that favors the reaction = Reaction rate is said to depend on the proportion of reactant molecules at or above the activation energy for the reaction (Tortora et al., Figure 2.5(a)) = The importance of enzymes in living systems centers on their ability to influence reaction rates by forming enzyme-substrate complexes that favor a reactive configuration, thus "lowering" the activation energy of a reaction (Tortora et al., Figure 2.5(b))....
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