Fundamental properties of matter- Organization of atoms (Tortora et al. Fig 2.1) = Protons, neutrons, electrons = In uncharged atoms, electrons balance protons = Electrons are organized into orbitals ; the reactivity of an atom often depends on distribution of electrons in "outer shells"- Elements = All atoms of an element contain the same number of protons, which gives the atomic number = The atomic weight depends on number of protons plus neutrons; the term isotope refers to atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons and hence atomic weight (e.g., 12 C and 14 C)- Ions = Atoms acquire charge when they gain or lose electrons = Cations have a deficiency of electrons (relative to protons) and are positively charged; anions have a surplus of electrons (again, relative to protons) and are negatively charged. = The tendency to become ionized varies among the elements- Molecules = Molecules are formed from atoms joined together by bonds = A compound is a substance consisting of single type of molecule;
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