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LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM INFECTIONS Pneumonia - Primary, Secondary Lobar pneumonia - involves lobes Bronchial pneumonia - begins in bronchi Transmission: Primary - droplet nuclei, P/E nasopharynx. Secondary - due to normal flora, follows resistance. Disease: Localizes in lungs inflammation accumulation of fluids. Secondary Pneumonia - Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram pos. cocci. Causes pneumonia following severe illness of RT, debilitated patients, etc. Virulence: Part of URT normal flora, encapsulated, alpha hemolysins. Vaccine: Capsular antigens Primary Pneumonias - Caused by # pathogens. 1) Staphylococcus aureus - Gram pos. cocci 2) Klebsiella pneumonia - Gram neg. bacillus 3) Mycoplasma pneumoniae - lack cell wall, contagious 4) Chlamydia psittaci - Gram neg., intracellular 5) Legionella pneumophilia - Gram neg. bacillus, intracellular 6) Viruses can also cause primary pneumonia
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Unformatted text preview: Influenza - Influenza Virus types A, B, C A - most virulent; responsible for most epidemics, pandemics B - less virulent; causes some epidemics C - least virulent; causes mild infections Virulence: invades m.m., ciliated epithelium of nasal, oropharynx, lungs Transmission: URT secretions - droplet nuclei P/E: nasopharynx Disease: Inc. pd. 1- 3 days. Destroys epithelium inflammation. Symptoms vary with antigenic type. Complications: secondary bacterial infections (pneumococcal pneumonia) Immunity: Active infection produces active immunity, but does not protect against future infections due to frequent antigenic changes in virus: 1) Antigenic drift: due to spontaneous mutations, A & B. 2) Antigenic shift: due to recombination with animal viruses, A only. Vaccine: inactivated viruses (current strains)...
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