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Microbial Metabolis2 - bond = The energy for anabolic...

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Microbial Metabolism - Activities and regulation of enzymes The term metabolism refers to the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism. Metabolic activity can be dividied into two classes of reactions: - Catabolic reactions release energy and are employed for breaking down nutrients = Many catabolic reactions are hydrolysis reactions = An example of catabolism is hydrolysis of proteins to individual amino acids - Anabolic reactions require energy and are used in synthesizing molecules needed by the cells = Many anabolic reactions are dehydration synthesis reactions = An example of anabolism is synthesis of proteins from amino acids - Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a link between catabolism and anabolism (Tortora et al., Figure 5.1) = Catabolic reactions may be linked to dehydration synthesis of ATP from ADP and free phosphate; the energy released in the catabolic reaction is "stored" in the ADP-P covalent
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Unformatted text preview: bond = The energy for anabolic reactions may be obtained by hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + phosphate. The metabolic reactions of living systems are catalyzed by enzymes- By a catalyst, we we mean something that increases the frequency of productive collisions in a chemical reaction- Enzymes, most of which are large globular protein molecules, are highly specific, affecting only certain substrates and certain chemical reactions- Many enzymes consist of both a protein portion, the apoenzyme, and a nonprotein cofactor; together, these make up a holoenzyme (Tortora et al., Figure 5.2) = If the cofactor is an organic molecule, it is called a coenzyme; most of the compounds that we refer to as "vitamins" act as coenzymes or components of coenzymes...
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