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Oxidatio2 - = Finally the high-energy phosphate is...

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Oxidation-reduction, mechanisms of ATP generation, glycolysis, Krebs cycle = Each molecule of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is oxidized to 3-phosphoglyceric acid in a complex reaction sequence · Electrons removed from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate are transferred to NAD+, producing NADH · Coupled to the oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a high energy phosphate bond is formed, giving the intermediate, 1,3-diphosphoglyceric acid · The high-energy phosphate is transferred to ADP, producing ATP THIS IS WHAT WE GET FROM GLYCOLYSIS - 2 MOLECULES OF NADH AND TWO MOLECULES OF ATP. THE REMAINING REACTIONS INVOLVE "GETTING BACK" THE 2 ATP INVESTED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PATHWAY = Each molecule of 3-phosphoglycerate is rearranged to 2-phosphoglycerate = Each molecule of 2-phosphoglycerate is rearranged (and dehydrated) to phosphoenolpyruvic acid; this creates a high-energy phosphate bond
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Unformatted text preview: = Finally, the high-energy phosphate is transferred to ADP, producing ATP and pyruvic acid- In summary of Embden-Meyerhof glycolysis, = Glucose has been oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid = Four molecules of ATP have been synthesized; since two ATPs were used to get glycolysis started, there is a net gain of 2 ATP from glycolysis = Two molecules of NAD+ have been reduced to NADH; as we shall see, these are the treasure of respiration and the trash of fermentation- The Embden-Meyerhof pathway is not the only pathway for oxidation of glucose = In parallel with glycolysis, many bacteria shunt some of their glucose into the pentose phosphate pathways, which yield · five-carbon sugars, such as the ribose used in synthesis of nucleotides · NADPH, which is "preferred" to NADH in providing electrons to biosynthesis reactions...
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