Prokaryotic Cell Biology - Structures external to the cell membraneThe cell walls of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are very different from one another(Tortora et al., Figure 4.12)- Gram-positive bacteria are surrounded by a relatively thick layer of peptidoglycan (Tortora et al.,Figure 4.12b)= Negatively-charged teichoic acids are covalently bound to the peptidoglycan= The teichoic acids probably assist in binding positively-charged molecules and surfaces to thecell- Gram-negative cells possess a much thinner layer of peptidoglycan, surrounded by an outermembrane (Tortora et al., Figure 4.12c)= Like the cytoplasmic membrane, the outer membrane is based on a phospholipid bilayer, andcontains macromolecules unique to these bacteria· Lipoproteins consist of a lipid portion embedded in the "inner face" of the outermembrane and a protein portion covalently bound to the peptidoglycan; lipoproteinsanchor the outer membrane to the peptidoglycan layer· Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
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