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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS - Mutations B Transfer of Genetic...

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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Occurs in two stages: 1. Transcription a. Genetic message for one protein transcribed into m-RNA b. m-RNA formed complementary to “master” strand in DNA c. Genetic message carried to ribosomes 2. Translation a. First codon on m-RNA attaches to active site on ribosome b. Genetic message for protein translated one codon at a time c. T-RNA binds to specific amino acid 1). Delivers amino acid to ribosome-m-RNA 2). Positions the amino acid according to code in m-RNA 3). Anticodon binds to COMPLEMENTARY codon d. Peptide bonds formed between amino acids e. Process repeated as each codon comes into position on ribosome f. Ribosome reaches “stop” codon on m-RNA - complete protein released g. Ribosome separates, released from m-RNA, h. Ribosome attaches to first codon on m-RNA i. Many ribosomes can bind to same m-RNA CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OF DNA ( GENETIC CODE ) A.
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Unformatted text preview: Mutations B. Transfer of Genetic Material MUTATIONS A. Definition : 1. Permanent change in the sequence of nucleotides in DNA 2. Passed to all daughter cells (inherited) B. Types of mutations: 1. Spontaneous mutations - due to mistakes occurring during DNA replication 2. Induced mutations - due to mutation causing agents (mutagens - chemicals, UV, etc.) C. Changes in DNA → mutation 1. Point mutation - base substitution a. Substitution 1 base b. Inversion 1 base pair 2. Frameshift mutation a. Addition base pairs b. Deletion base pairs c. Alters all triplets beyond the point of addition or deletion 3. Nonsense mutation a. Creates a stop codon in m-RNA (may be due to a point mutation) b. Incomplete protein (nonsense protein) produced 4. Dimer a. Presence UV light b. Covalent bonds formed between adjacent thymines...
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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS - Mutations B Transfer of Genetic...

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