Rabies - WOUND INFECTIONS Tetanus Clostridium tetani Gram...

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Rabies (Hydrophobia) - Rabies virus Fatal viral encephalitis normally occurring in wild animals. Bats carriers. Virulence: Invades nervous tissue Transmission: Saliva infected animal - by bite, scratch; inhalation dried bat feces - rare. P/E: Break in skin, rarely nasal passage Disease: Inc. pd. 1 - 3 mo., up to 1 - 2 yrs. Virus multiplies at site travels up nerve fiber spinal cord, brain invades nervous tissue inflammation, hemorrhages Onset: headache, fever, vomiting, nervousness, confusion, lack coordination, depression, excitability, hallucinations spasms of muscles throat (painful to swallow) convulsions coma death due to paralysis respiratory muscles. No treatment once begins. Prevention: Vaccination (Pasteur treatment) with inactivated virus (active immunity). If animal rabid - also inject antirabies antiserum (passive immunity). Control: Immunize pets. If bitten, hold animal, have examined (Rabies Control). Identification: Negri bodies in infected cells, serological tests.
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Unformatted text preview: WOUND INFECTIONS Tetanus - Clostridium tetani Gram pos. bacillus, anaerobic, endospores, common in soil & GI tract animals Virulence: Powerful neurotoxin - blocks neurotransmitter inhibitor cholinesterase P/E: Endospores introduced deep into tissue wound (puncture wound) Disease: Inc. pd. 4 d. - 2 wk. Endospores germinate → bacteria multiply at site, remain localized producing little or no inflammation → secretes neurotoxin → enters bloodstream → CNS where interferes with cholinesterase → causes tonic contractions, painful spasms of muscles. Onset: Headache, stiff neck, ↑ fever, chills. Spasms begin in muscles of face (causes difficulty in opening mouth) → neck → back → chest → abdomen → extremities. Spasms can break bones, cause body contortions. Involvement of respiratory, cardiac muscles → convulsions → coma → death. Vaccine: DPT toxoid Antitetanus antiserum also available - only neutralizes toxin in bloodstream....
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