VALVULAR_EMERGENCIES.ppt - VALVULAR EMERGENCIES ANATOMY...

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Unformatted text preview: VALVULAR EMERGENCIES ANATOMY Four heart valves: prevent retrograde flow during cardiac cycle AV valves: Mitral: two cusps, separates left atrium and left ventricle Tricuspid: Three cusps separates right atrium and right ventricle Valves attached to heart wall via papillary muscles and chordae tendineae ANATOMY Aortic valve: Three cusps separates left ventricle and aorta Pulmonary valve: Separates right ventricle from pulmonary artery Abnormalaties of cusps, papillary muscles, chordae tendineae or chambers can cause valvular dysfunction MURMURS Ninety % of valvular disease is chronic Heart can adapt over decades before symptoms occur (dilitation and hypertrophy) Patients with valvular disease have 2.5 fold increased rate of death and 3.2 fold increase rate of stroke Murmurs may be heard with normal cardiac anatomy (anemia, sepsis, fever, pregnancy, thyrotoxicosis) Diastolic murmur or new murmur with symptoms at rest require cardiology consult MITRAL STENOSIS Declining in frequency, rheumatic heart disease remains most common cause Pathophysiology Slowly progressive Dilitation of atria leads to atrial fib in majority of patients Severe stenosis results in pulmonary edema Clinical Exertional dyspnea 80% of patients Hemoptysis Emboli may infarct CNS, heart, kidneys, Murmur: Mid diastolic/crescendos into S2 MITRAL STENOSIS...
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VALVULAR_EMERGENCIES.ppt - VALVULAR EMERGENCIES ANATOMY...

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