BIO411-2011-04-Difftl Gene Expr

BIO411-2011-04-Difftl Gene Expr - Differential Gene...

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Differential Gene Expression During Development BIO 411
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Mechanisms for regulating gene activity mode regulatory mechanisms genomic remodeling addition or deletion of genes transcriptional regulation basal promoter cis regulatory elements (“enhancers”) trans regulatory factors chromatin structure post-transcriptional regulation RNA processing RNA export RNA stability translation initiation protein perdurance
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Transcriptional regulation: anatomy of a eukaryotic gene cis regulatory elements DNA motifs that serve as transcription factor binding sites; on the same DNA strand as gene trans regulatory factors DNA binding transcription factors encoded by other loci
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Transcriptional regulation: basal transcription machinery
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Transcriptional regulation: basal transcription factor binding QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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Transcriptional regulation: basal transcription factor binding TBP: TATA-binding protein (subunit of TFIID) TAF: TBP-associated factor (e.g., p250, p110, p150) TF: general transcription factor (e.g., Sp1, NTF-1)
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Transcriptional regulation: role of chromatin structure open active condensed inactive histone acetylation accessibility transcription histone methylation accessibility transcription HAT histone acetyltransferase HDAC histone deacetylase
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Transcriptional regulation: DNA methylation • DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) catalyzes transfer of -CH3 to cytosine in CpG dinucleotides • CpG methylation directs HDAC to histones so transcription start sites become inaccessible • CpG methylation has critical role for genomic imprinting
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BIO411-2011-04-Difftl Gene Expr - Differential Gene...

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