All BIOL 411 Questions

All BIOL 411 Questions - September 28th Course Introduction...

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September 28 th Course Introduction 1. What are germ layers and what are three examples of major derivatives to which each germ layer gives rise? Germ Layers: distinct regions of the embryo that give rise to the differentiated cell types and specific organ systems. Ectoderm : generates outer layer of embryo and produces surface layer (epidermis) of the skin, forms brain, and nervous system. Endoderm : becomes the innermost layer of the embryo and produces the epithelium of the digestive tube and associated organs such as lungs, pharynx, thyroid, and intestines. Mesoderm : becomes sandwiched between the ectoderm and endoderm and generates blood, heart, kidneys, gonads, bone, muscles and connective tissue. 2. Define the terms Differentiation: synthesis by a cell of proteins different from those made at a previous stage of development, or different from those made by surrounding cells, typically as the cell acquires an increasingly specialized phenotype. Cell fate: The normal phenotype of a cell or its progeny during a future stage Cell Lineage: the prior history of a cell Fate Map: A diagram that shows, for a particular developmental stage, where each part of the embryo will move to at later stages, and what part each will become during normal development. Morphogenesis : formation of biological structures by changing the relationship of the cell or tissues. Epithelium: Epithelial cells that interconnected on a basement membrane and form a sheet or tube Mesenchyme: Loosely organized embryotic connective tissue consisting of scattered fibroblast-like and sometimes migratory mesenchymal cells separated by large amounts of extracellular matrix Isometric growth: occurs when changes in size from growth or over evolutionary times, do not lead to changes in proportion Allometric growth: occurs when growth due to change in size or over evolutionary time, changed in proportion with increase in size 3. How does one construct a fate map? How can one analyze cell lineage? What differs between the two approaches? The tracing of cell lineages involves following individual cells to see what those cells become. In many organisms, resolution of individual cells is not possible, but one can label groups of embryonic cells to see what that area becomes in the adult organism. By bringing such studies together, one can construct a fate map. These diagrams "map" larval or adult structures onto the region of the embryo from which they arose. Fate maps constitute an important foundation for experimental embryology, providing researchers with information on which portions of the embryo normally become which larval or adult structures. To construct a fate map, you would first apply vital dyes to the region of interest. Vital dyes stain cells but do not kill them.
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2012 for the course BIOL 411 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Washington.

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All BIOL 411 Questions - September 28th Course Introduction...

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