Identifying the electron added or removed to form an ion

Identifying the electron added or removed to form an ion -...

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Identifying the electron added or removed to form an ion Problem: First, find the electron configuration using the periodic table If an electron is added to the atom, the Pauli exclusion principle tells you it must go into the unfilled orbital with the lowest energy, which we can abbreviate as the LUAO, for "lowest unoccupied atomic orbital" If an electron is removed from the atom, it will almost always be the electron in the highest energy occupied orbital, because that minimizes the energy needed to remove it. We can abbreviate this orbital as the HOAO, for "highest occupied atomic orbital" For s and p block elements with unfilled valence subshells (i.e. not at the end of the block), the HOAO will be in the same subshell as the LUAO. For example, oxygen is the middle of the p block. The ground-state configuration of an oxygen atom is [He]2s 2 2p 4 . Therefore the HOAO is in the unfilled 2p subshell, and so is the LUAO.
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Unformatted text preview: For elements at the end of the s or p block, the HOAO will be in the subshell corresponding to the subblock, but because this subshell is filled the LUAO will be in the next subshell. For example, argon is at the end of the p block. The ground-state configuration of an argon atom is [Ne]3s 2 3p 6 . Therefore the HOAO is in the 3p subshell, but because this subshell is filled the LUAO is in the next subshell, the 4s . For d-block elements the HOAO is also not usually in the same subshell as the LUAO. Electrons will usually be removed from the higher-energy s subshell but added to either the d subshell, if it's unfilled, or to the next p subshell, if the d subshell is filled. For example, iron is in the middle of the d block. The ground-state configuration of an iron atom is [Ar]3d 6 4s 2 . Therefore the HOAO is in the 4s subshell, but the LUAO is in the unfilled 3d subshell....
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2012 for the course CHEM 152 taught by Professor Chiu during the Fall '08 term at University of Washington.

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Identifying the electron added or removed to form an ion -...

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