CHEM 211 - Chapter 1 Fundamental Concepts and Units of...

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1 Chapter 1 Fundamental Concepts and Units of Measurement
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2 Topics to Be discussed 1.1 Chemistry is important for anyone studying the sciences 1.2 The scientific method helps us build models of nature 1.3 Matter is composed of elements, compounds, and mixtures 1.4 Properties of matter can be classified in different ways 1.5 Measurements are essential to describe properties 1.6 Measurements always contain some uncertainty 1.7 Units can be converted using the factor-label method 1.8 Density is a useful intensive property
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1.1. Chemistry is important for anyone studying the sciences 3 Chemistry and the Sciences Chemistry - the study of the composition of matter and its transformations Matter - anything that takes up space and has mass Chemical reaction - change that results from the interaction of matter
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1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature 4 Scientific Method: Getting Started Observe a Phenomenon - accurately describe something we see, taste, feel, smell or hear Pose a Question - to explain the phenomenon Form a Hypothesis - a tentative explanation of the phenomenon
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1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature 5 Scientific Method: Testing the Hypothesis Experiment to Prove or Disprove Hypothesis If experiment proves hypothesis, form theory (theoretical model) If experiment disproves hypothesis, pose new question or hypothesis Continue experimentation. If results form pattern, considered a law
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1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature 6 The Scientific Method is Cyclical Empirical facts (observations, data) Scientific laws (tested generalizations) Hypothesis (tentative explanation) Theory (tested explanation)
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1.2. The scientific method helps us build models of nature 7 Models Helps Us Visualize Matter Hydrogen atom Oxygen atom Water Molecule Oxygen Hydrogen (b) (a)
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1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures 8 Changes in Matter Chemical change - a process that results in the formation of a new substance Evidence? Formation of a new solid, new liquid, new gas, temperature change, or an unexpected color change Physical change - a process that results in no new substance, but that may change the state of those present, or the proportions
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1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures 9 Matter is either a pure substance or a mixture Mixtures may be separated using physical methods such as chromatography, filtration, sieving Matter Can Be Classified By Its Properties:
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1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures 10 What Is An Element? Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances Shown on the periodic table as symbols: “C” for carbon “Li” for lithium “Ca” for calcium “Na” for sodium Made of identical atoms, either singly or in groups
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1.3. Matter is Composed of Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures 11 Eleven symbols bear no resemblance to their English names - their names are derived from other languages
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CHEM 211 - Chapter 1 Fundamental Concepts and Units of...

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