Chapter-4-KW - 1 Chapter 4 Reactions of Ions and Molecules...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 4 Reactions of Ions and Molecules in Aqueous Solutions 2 Link to Sections 4.1 Special terminology applies to solutions 4.2 Ionic compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in water 4.3 Acids and bases are classes of compounds with special properties 4.4 Naming acids and bases follows a system 4.5 Ionic reactions can often be predicted 4.6 The composition of a solution is described by its concentration 4.7 Molarity is used for problems in solution stoichiometry 4.8 Chemical analysis and titration are applications of solution stoichiometry 4.1. Special terminology applies to solutions 3 Solutions Solution- a homogeneous mixture in which two or more components mix freely Solvent- the component present in the largest amount Solute- the substance dissolved in the solvent. The solution is named by the solute. Concentration- a solute-to-solvent ratio describing the composition of the mixture 4.1. Special terminology applies to solutions 4 The dilute solution on the left has less solute per unit volume than the (more) concentrated solution on the right Relative Concentration Terms 4.1. Special terminology applies to solutions 5 Saturated- no more solute can be dissolved at the current temperature in the given amount of solvent Solubility- the amount of solute that can dissolve in the specified amount of solvent at a given temperature (usually g solute/100 g solvent or moles solute/L solution) Unsaturated- contains less solute than the solubility allows Supersaturated - contains more solute than solubility predicts Solubility 4.1. Special terminology applies to solutions 6 Most solid solutes are more soluble at higher temperatures. Careful cooling of saturated solutions may result in a supersaturated solution Often form a precipitate ( ppt. ) Supersaturated Solutions are Unstable 4.2 Ionic Compounds Conduct Electricity When Dissolved in Water 7 Ionic Compounds in Water Water molecules arrange themselves around the ions and dissociate them from the lattice. The separated ions are hydrated and conduct electrical current (act as electrolytes ). Polyatomic ions remain intact in the dissociation process. 4.2. Ionic compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in water 8 Molecular compounds in water The solute particles are surrounded by the water, but the molecules are not dissociated. 4.2. Ionic compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in water 9 Electrical conductivity Strong electrolyte- aqueous solution that conducts electricity because solute is 100% dissociated into ions e.g. CuSO4 Weak electrolyte- aqueous solution that weakly conducts electricity due to low ionization Non-electrolyte- an aqueous solution that doesnt conduct electricity because solute does not dissociate into ions e.g. Suger 4.2. Ionic compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in water 10 Ionic equations show dissociated ions Hydrated ions, with the symbol ( aq ), are written separately....
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Chapter-4-KW - 1 Chapter 4 Reactions of Ions and Molecules...

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